Islamic architecture

Islamic architecture

Islamic structure contains the architectural types of buildings related to Islam. It encompasses each secular and spiritual types from the early historical past of Islam to the current day. The Islamic world encompasses a large geographic space traditionally starting from western Africa and Europe to jap Asia. Sure commonalities are shared by Islamic architectural types throughout all these areas, however over time totally different areas developed their very own types in line with native supplies and methods, native dynasties and patrons, totally different regional facilities of inventive manufacturing, and generally totally different non secular affiliations.[1][2]

Early Islamic structure was influenced by Roman, Byzantine, Iranian, and Mesopotamian structure and all different lands which the Early Muslim conquests conquered within the seventh and eighth centuries.[3][4][5][6][7] Additional east, it was additionally influenced by Chinese language and Indian structure as Islam unfold to Southeast Asia. Later it developed distinct traits within the type of buildings and within the ornament of surfaces with Islamic calligraphy, arabesques, and geometric motifs.[8] New architectural parts like minarets, muqarnas, and multifoil arches have been invented. Frequent or vital forms of buildings in Islamic structure embody mosques, madrasas, tombs, palaces, hammams (public baths), Sufi hospices (e.g. khanqahs or zawiyas), fountains and sabils, industrial buildings (e.g. caravanserais and bazaars), and army fortifications.[2]

INJ Architects Studio designs Al Fulk Mosque with a different frame in Preston, UK


Early historical past (as much as Tenth century)


The Mosque of the Prophet, standing on the location of Muhammad’s first mosque in Medina. The current-day constructing is the results of many reconstructions and expansions as much as fashionable instances.[9]

The Islamic period started with the formation of Islam below the management of Muhammad in early Seventh-century Arabia. The primary mosque was a construction constructed by Muhammad in Medina in 622, proper after his Hijrah (migration) from Mecca, which corresponds to the location of the present-day Mosque of the Prophet (al-Masjid an-Nabawi).[10][9] It’s normally described as his home, however could have been designed to function a group middle from the start.[10] It consisted of a easy courtyard construction in-built unbaked brick, with an oblong, nearly sq., flooring plan measuring about 53 by 56 meters.[10][11] A shaded portico supported by palm trunks stood on the north facet of the courtyard, within the path of prayer (the qibla), which was initially in the direction of Jerusalem. When the qibla was modified to face in the direction of Mecca in 624, the same portico was added on the south facet, going through in the direction of that metropolis.[10] Muhammad and his household lived in separate rooms hooked up to the mosque, and Muhammad himself was buried in certainly one of these rooms upon his dying in 632.[10] Over the remainder of the Seventh century and within the eighth century the mosque was repeatedly expanded to incorporate a big flat-roofed prayer corridor supported by columns (a hypostyle corridor) with a central courtyard.[10] It grew to become one of many predominant fashions for the early mosques constructed elsewhere.[10][11] Students typically agree that apart from Muhammad’s mosque/home, the structure of the Arabian Peninsula appears to have had solely a restricted function within the formulation of later Islamic structure.[12][13][14][15]

Previous to the beginning of the Arab-Muslim conquests of the Seventh century, the 2 main powers within the Center East and the jap Mediterranean world have been the Byzantine (Japanese Roman) Empire and the Sasanian Empire. These two empires each cultivated their very own main architectural traditions. Occupying the borderlands between these two empires – within the desert and steppe areas of Syria, Palestine, Mesopotamia and northern Arabia – have been two Arab tribal shopper states: the Lakhmids, who have been shoppers of the Sasanians and had their capital at al-Hira (in present-day Iraq), and the Ghassanids, who have been shoppers of the Byzantines and guarded their jap borders.[16] These two Arab dynasties have been important patrons of structure of their respective areas.[16] Their structure shouldn’t be nicely understood as a result of shortage of identifiable stays at the moment, however they borrowed and tailored the structure of their Byzantine and Sasanian suzerains.[17][18] A few of their buildings are identified from archeology or historic texts, such because the Lakhmid palaces of Khawarnaq and al-Sadir in al-Hira, a Ghassanid church with mosaic ornament at Nitil (close to Madaba), and a Ghassanid viewers corridor integrated into the later Umayyad rural residence at ar-Rusafa.[16][19][20] The tradition and structure of the Lakhmids and Ghassanids most likely performed a subsequent function in transmitting and filtering the architectural traditions of the Sasanian and the Byzantine/Roman worlds to the later Arab Islamic dynasties who established their political facilities in the identical areas.[21][22][23]

When the early Arab-Muslim conquests unfold out from the Arabian Peninsula within the Seventh century and superior throughout the Center East and North Africa, new garrison cities have been established within the conquered territories, comparable to Fustat in Egypt and Kufa in present-day Iraq. The central congregational mosques of those cities have been constructed within the hypostyle format.[10] In different cities, particularly in Syria, new mosques have been established by changing or occupying elements of present church buildings in present cities, as for instance in Damascus and Hama.[10] These early mosques had no minaret, though small shelters could have been constructed on the roofs to guard the muezzin whereas issuing the decision to prayer.[24]

Umayyad and Abbasid eras

Part of the Umayyad-era Mshatta Facade, now within the Pergamon Museum in Berlin, from a palace close to Amman

The Umayyad Caliphate (661–750) mixed parts of Byzantine structure and Sasanian structure, however Umayyad structure launched new mixtures of those types.[25] The reuse of parts from classical Roman and Byzantine artwork was nonetheless extensively evident as a result of political energy and patronage was centered in Syria, a former Roman/Byzantine province.[26] Some former Ghassanid constructions additionally seem to have been reused and modified throughout this era.[27] Nonetheless, a big quantity of experimentation occurred as Umayyad patrons recruited craftsmen from throughout the empire and designers have been allowed, and even inspired, to combine parts from totally different inventive traditions and to ignore conventional conventions and restraints.[26] Partly because of this, Umayyad structure is distinguished by the extent and number of ornament, together with mosaics, wall portray, sculpture and carved reliefs.[28][26] Whereas figural scenes have been notably current in monuments like Qusayr ‘Amra, non-figural ornament and extra summary scenes grew to become extremely favoured, particularly in non secular structure.[29][26]

They Umayyads have been the primary so as to add the mihrab to mosque design, a concave area of interest within the qibla wall of the mosque.[30] The primary mihrab reportedly appeared at Muhammad’s mosque in Medina when it was rebuilt by al-Walid I in 707. It appears to have represented the place the place the Prophet stood when main prayer.[30] This nearly instantly grew to become an ordinary function of all mosques.[30] In hypostyle mosques, the Umayyads additionally launched the custom of creating the “nave” or aisle in entrance of the mihrab wider than the others, dividing the prayer room alongside its central axis.[30] A number of main early monuments of Islamic structure constructed below the Umayyads embody the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem (constructed by Caliph Abd al-Malik) and the Nice Mosque of Damascus (constructed by al-Walid I). The Al-Aqsa Mosque on the Haram al-Sharif, additionally in Jerusalem, was additionally rebuilt by al-Walid I, changing an earlier easy construction constructed round 670.[10] Each the al-Aqsa Mosque and the Nice Mosque of Damascus featured a hypostyle corridor and a dome above the house in entrance of the mihrab, and each have been influential within the design of later mosques elsewhere.[10] A lot of palaces from this era have additionally partially survived or have been excavated in fashionable instances.[26][28] The horseshoe arch seems for the primary time in Umayyad structure, later to evolve to its most superior kind in al-Andalus (Iberian Peninsula).[31]

The partitions and minaret of the Nice Mosque of Samarra constructed by the Abbasids within the Ninth century

The Abbasid structure of the Abbasid Caliphate (750–1513) was notably influenced by Sasanian structure, which in flip featured parts current since historic Mesopotamia.[32][33] Different influences comparable to historic Soghdian structure in Central Asia have additionally been famous.[32] This was partly a results of the caliphate’s political middle shifting additional east to the brand new capital of Baghdad, in present-day Iraq.[33] Options from the late Umayyad interval, comparable to vaulting, carved stucco, and painted wall ornament, have been continued and elaborated within the Abbasid interval.[33] Abbasid mosques all adopted the courtyard plan with hypostyle halls. The earliest was the mosque that Caliph al-Mansur in-built Baghdad (since destroyed). The Nice Mosque of Samarra constructed by al-Mutawakkil measured 256 by 139 metres (840 by 456 ft), had a flat wood roof supported by columns, and was adorned with marble panels and glass mosaics.[34] The prayer corridor of the Abu Dulaf Mosque at Samarra had arcades on rectangular brick piers working at proper angles to the qibla wall. Each of the Samarra mosques have spiral minarets, the one examples in Iraq.[34] A mosque at Balkh in what’s now Afghanistan was about 20 by 20 metres (66 by 66 ft) sq., with three rows of three sq. bays, supporting 9 vaulted domes.[35] Whereas the origins of the minaret are unsure, it’s believed that the primary true minarets appeared on this interval.[36][24] A number of of the Abbasid mosques constructed within the early ninth century had minaret towers which stood on the northern ends of the constructing, reverse the central mihrab. Among the many most well-known of those is the Malwiyya minaret, a stand-alone tower with a “spiral” kind constructed for the Nice Mosque of Samarra.[37]

Early regional types

The mihrab and maqsura space of the Nice Mosque of Cordoba, added to the mosque by al-Hakam II within the late Tenth century

After the overthrow of the Umayyad Caliphate in 750 by the Abbasids, a brand new department of the Umayyad dynasty succeeded in taking management of Al-Andalus in 756, creating the Emirate of Cordoba and reaching the apogee of its energy throughout the Caliphate of Cordoba within the Tenth century. The Nice Mosque at Córdoba, in-built 785–786, marks the earliest main monument of Moorish structure within the Iberian Peninsula (Al-Andalus). This type of structure established in Al-Andalus was additionally largely shared with the structure of western North Africa (the Maghreb), from which later empires within the area would additionally emerge and contribute to its inventive evolution.[38][39] The unique Nice Mosque of Cordoba was famous for its distinctive hypostyle corridor with rows of double-tiered, two-coloured, arches, which have been repeated and maintained in later extensions of the constructing. The mosque was expanded a number of instances, with the growth by al-Hakam II (r. 961–976) introducing vital aesthetic improvements comparable to interlacing arches and ribbed domes, which have been imitated and elaborated in later monuments within the area.[38][39] The development of Madinat al-Zahra, a brand new capital and monumental palace-city within the Tenth century, additionally created an vital complicated of royal structure and patronage. Smaller monuments such because the early type of the Qarawiyyin Mosque in Fez (present-day Morocco) and the Bab al-Mardum Mosque in Toledo display the prevalence of the identical stylistic parts throughout the area.[40]

After its preliminary apogee of energy, the Abbasid Caliphate grew to become partly fragmented into regional states within the Ninth century which have been formally obedient to the caliphs in Baghdad however have been de facto unbiased.[41] The Aghlabids in Ifriqiya (roughly modern-day Tunisia) have been notable patrons of structure themselves, accountable for rebuilding each the Nice Mosque of Kairouan (initially based by Uqba ibn Nafi in 670) and the Zaytuna Mosque of Tunis in a lot of their present types, in addition to for constructing quite a few different constructions within the area.[42][43] In Egypt, Ahmad ibn Tulun established a short-lived dynasty, the Tulunids, and constructed himself a brand new capital (Al-Qata’i) and a brand new congregational mosque, referred to as the Ibn Tulun Mosque, which was accomplished in 879. It was strongly influenced by Abbasid structure in Samarra and stays one of the notable and best-preserved examples of Ninth-century structure from the Abbasid Caliphate.[44]

Bab al-Futuh gate constructed by the Fatimid vazir Badr al-Jamali

Within the Tenth century the Fatimid Caliphate rose to energy in Ifriqiya, the place it constructed a brand new fortified capital at Mahdia. In 970 the Fatimids transferring their middle of energy to Egypt they usually based one other new capital, Cairo.[45] Fatimid structure in Egypt adopted Tulunid methods and used comparable supplies, but in addition developed these of their very own. Their first congregational mosque in Cairo was al-Azhar Mosque, based similtaneously the town (970), which grew to become the religious middle for the Ismaili Shi’a department of Islam. Different notable monuments embody the big Mosque of al-Hakim (based in 990 below al-‘Aziz however accomplished round 1013 below al-Hakim), the small Aqmar Mosque (1125) with its richly-decorated avenue façade, and the domed Mashhad of Sayyida Ruqayya (1133), notable for its mihrab of elaborately-carved stucco.[45] Underneath the highly effective vizier Badr al-Jamali (r. 1073–1094), the town partitions have been rebuilt in stone together with a number of monumental gates, three of which have survived to the present-day: Bab al-Futuh, Bab al-Nasr, and Bab Zuweila).[46][45]


Some traits of Islamic structure have been inherited from pre-Islamic structure of that area whereas some traits like minarets, muqarnas, arabesque, Islamic geometric motifs, pointed arch, multifoil arch, onion dome and pointed dome developed later.


Shalamar Gardens, a Mughal paradise backyard in Lahore, Pakistan

Gardens and water have for a lot of centuries performed an important function in Islamic tradition, and are sometimes in comparison with the backyard of Paradise. The comparability originates from the Achaemenid Empire. In his dialogue “Oeconomicus”, Xenophon has Socrates relate the story of the Spartan basic Lysander’s go to to the Persian prince Cyrus the Youthful, who reveals the Greek his “Paradise at Sardis”.[47] The classical type of the Persian Paradise backyard, or the charbagh, contains an oblong irrigated house with elevated pathways, which divide the backyard into 4 sections of equal measurement:

One of many hallmarks of Persian gardens is the four-part backyard laid out with axial paths that intersect on the backyard’s centre. This extremely structured geometrical scheme, known as the chahar bagh, grew to become a strong metaphor for the group and domestication of the panorama, itself a logo of political territory.[48]

A Charbagh from Achaemenid time has been recognized within the archaeological excavations at Pasargadae. The gardens of Chehel Sotoun (Isfahan), Fin Backyard (Kashan), Eram Backyard (Shiraz), Shazdeh Backyard (Mahan), Dowlatabad Backyard (Yazd), Abbasabad Backyard (Abbasabad), Akbarieh Backyard (South Khorasan Province), Pahlevanpour Backyard, all in Iran, kind a part of the UNESCO World Heritage.[49] Massive Paradise gardens are additionally discovered on the Taj Mahal (Agra), and at Humayun’s Tomb (New Delhi), in India; the Shalimar Gardens (Lahore, Pakistan) or on the Alhambra and Generalife in Granada, Spain.[50]

Courtyard (sahn)

The sahn (courtyard) and minaret of the Nice Mosque of Kairouan, Tunisia

Within the structure of the Muslim world courtyards are present in secular and spiritual constructions.

  1. Residences and different secular buildings usually comprise a central personal courtyard or walled backyard. This was additionally known as the wast ad-dar (“center of the home”) in Arabic. The custom of courtyard homes was already widespread within the historic Mediterranean world and Center East, as seen in Greco-Roman homes (e.g. the Roman domus). The usage of this house included the aesthetic results of crops and water, the penetration of pure mild, permitting breezes and air circulation into the construction throughout summer time warmth, as a cooler house with water and shade, and as a protected and proscribed place the place the ladies of the home needn’t be lined within the hijab clothes historically crucial in public.[51][52]
  1. A ṣaḥn (Arabic: صحن) is the formal courtyard present in nearly each mosque in Islamic structure. The courtyards are open to the sky and surrounded on all sides by constructions with halls and rooms, and sometimes a shaded semi-open arcade riwaq. A mosque courtyard is used for performing ablutions and as a patio for relaxation or gathering. Sahns normally function a central pool or fountain to help with ablutions, generally sheltered below an open domed pavilion.[10][53][54] Traditionally, due to the nice and cozy Mediterranean and Center Japanese climates, the courtyard additionally served to accommodate bigger numbers of worshippers throughout Friday prayers.[55]

Hypostyle corridor

A hypostyle, i.e., an open corridor supported by columns, is taken into account to be derived from architectural traditions of Achaemenid interval Persian meeting halls (apadana). Any such constructing originated from the Roman-style basilica with an adjoining courtyard surrounded by colonnades, like Trajan’s Discussion board in Rome. The Roman kind of constructing has developed out of the Greek agora. In Islamic structure, the hypostyle corridor is the principle function of the hypostyle mosque. One of many earliest hypostyle mosques is the Tarikhaneh Mosque in Iran, courting again to the eighth century.[50]

Some students discuss with the early hypostyle mosque with courtyard because the “Arab plan” or “Arab-type” mosque.[55][10] Such mosques have been constructed largely below the Umayyad and Abbasid dynasties; subsequently, nonetheless, the simplicity of one of these plan restricted the alternatives for additional growth, and because of this, these mosques step by step fell out of recognition in some areas.[55]


In Islamic buildings, vaulting follows two distinct architectural types: Whereas Umayyad structure within the west continues Syrian traditions of the sixth and seventh century, jap Islamic structure was primarily influenced by Sasanian types and types.

Umayyad diaphragm arches and barrel vaults

Qusair ‘Amra

Of their vaulting constructions, Umayyad interval buildings present a mix of historic Roman and Persian architectural traditions. Diaphragm arches with lintelled ceilings fabricated from wooden or stone beams, or, alternatively, with barrel vaults, have been identified within the Levant because the classical and Nabatean interval. They have been primarily used to cowl homes and cisterns. The architectural type of protecting diaphragm arches with barrel vaults, nonetheless, was probably newly launched from Iranian structure, as comparable vaulting was not identified in Bilad al-Sham earlier than the arrival of the Umayyads. Nonetheless, this way was well-known in Iran from early Parthian instances, as exemplified within the Parthian buildings of Aššur. The earliest identified instance for barrel vaults resting on diaphragm arches from Umayyad structure is understood from Qasr Harane in Syria. Throughout the early interval, the diaphragm arches are constructed from coarsely minimize limestone slabs, with out utilizing supporting falsework, which have been linked by gypsum mortar. Later-period vaults have been erected utilizing pre-formed lateral ribs modelled from gypsum, which served as a temporal formwork to information and middle the vault. These ribs, which have been left within the construction afterwards, don’t carry any load. The ribs have been forged upfront on strips of material, the impression of which may nonetheless be seen within the ribs at the moment. Related constructions are identified from Sasanian structure, for instance from the palace of Firuzabad. Umayyad-period vaults of this sort have been present in Amman Citadel and in Qasr Amra.[56]


An iwan within the Jameh Mosque of Isfahan

An iwan is a corridor that’s walled on three sides and open on one facet.[57][58] It’s usually lined by a vault though this may range.[58] This function was current in Sasanian structure, although its precise origins are older and nonetheless debated.[58] It was later integrated into Islamic structure. Its utilization grew to become extra widespread and widespread below the Seljuks within the Tenth century.[57] Iwans have been utilized in quite a lot of methods and organized in various positions in relation to the remainder of the constructing. They’re discovered in lots of forms of buildings together with mosques, madrasas, palaces, and caravanserais.
A typical structure is the four-iwan plan.

The associated Persian time period, pishtaq, means the doorway portal (generally an iwan) projecting from the façade of a constructing, typically adorned with calligraphy bands, glazed tilework, and geometric designs.[59][60]


Domes in Iran and Central Asia

Due to its lengthy historical past of constructing and re-building, spanning the time from the Abbasids to the Qajar dynasty, and its wonderful state of conservation, the Jameh Mosque of Isfahan offers an outline over the experiments Islamic architects performed with difficult vaulting constructions.[61]

The system of squinches, which is a building filling within the higher angles of a sq. room in order to kind a base to obtain an octagonal or spherical dome, was already identified in Sasanian structure.[62] The spherical triangles of the squinches have been break up up into additional subdivisions or techniques of niches, leading to a posh interaction of supporting constructions forming a decorative spatial sample which hides the load of the construction.

The custom of double-shelled brick domes in Iran has been traced again to the eleventh century.[63][64] In the beginning of the fifteenth century, main Timurid monuments just like the Gur-i Amir Mausoleum and the Bibi Khanum Mosque (each accomplished round 1404) have been notable of their use of enormous double-shelled domes. These domes have been composed of an inside shell which was seen from the inside and a bigger outer shell, seen from the outside and sometimes of a barely totally different form. The Gur-i Amir Mausoleum’s dome, the oldest one to have survived to the current day, options an exterior ribbed profile with a band of muqarnas round its drum.[65] Nonetheless, domes of this form and magnificence have been probably constructed earlier, as evidenced by the Sultaniyya Mausoleum in Cairo, which was constructed earlier within the 1350s and seems to have copied this identical design from the Iranian custom.[63]

The “non-radial rib vault”, an architectural type of ribbed vaults with a superimposed spherical dome, is the attribute architectural vault type of the Islamic East. From its beginnings within the Jameh Mosque of Isfahan, this type of vault was utilized in a sequence of vital buildings as much as the interval of Safavid structure. Its predominant traits are:[61]

  • 4 intersecting ribs, at instances redoubled and intersected to kind an eight-pointed star;
  • the omission of a transition zone between the vault and the supporting construction;
  • a central dome or roof lantern on high of the ribbed vault.

Whereas intersecting pairs of ribs from the principle ornamental function of Seljuk structure, the ribs have been hidden behind further architectural parts in later intervals, as exemplified within the dome of the Tomb of Ahmed Sanjar in Merv, till they lastly disappeared fully behind the double shell of a stucco dome, as seen within the dome of Ālī Qāpū in Isfahan.[61]

Domes in South Asia

The usage of domes in South Asia began with the institution of Delhi sultanate in 1204 CE. In contrast to Ottoman domes, and much more so than Persian domes, domes in South Asia are usually extra bulbous.[67] Many monumental Mughal domes have been additionally double-shelled and derived from the Iranian custom. The design of the Tomb of Humayun (accomplished round 1571–72), together with its double-shelled dome, means that its architects have been acquainted with Timurid monuments in Samarqand.[68] The central dome of the Taj Mahal likewise incorporates a bulbous profile and a double-shelled building.[69]

Ribbed domes in Al-Andalus and the Maghreb

Ribbed dome within the Mosque–Cathedral of Córdoba, courting from the Tenth century

The Nice Mosque of Córdoba in Al-Andalus was initially constructed with a system of double-arched arcades supporting the flat timberwork ceiling. The columns of the arcades are linked by horseshoe arches which help brick pillars, that are in flip interconnected by semicircular arches. Within the Tenth-century additions to the mosque modifications have been launched into the fundamental architectural design: horseshoe arches have been now used for the higher row of arcades,[verification needed] which have been now supported by five-pass arches.[clarification needed] In sections which now supported domes, further supporting constructions have been wanted to bear the thrust of the cupolas. The architects solved this downside by the development of intersecting three- or five-pass arches. The three domes spanning the vaults in entrance of the mihrab wall are constructed as ribbed vaults. Reasonably than assembly within the centre of the dome, the ribs intersect each other off-center, forming an eight-pointed star within the centre.[70]

The ribbed domes of the Mosque-Cathedral of Córdoba served as fashions for later mosque buildings within the Islamic West of Al-Andalus and the Maghreb. At round 1000 AD, the Bab al-Mardum Mosque in Toledo was constructed with the same, eight-ribbed dome, surrounded by eight different ribbed domes of various design.[71] Related domes are additionally seen within the mosque constructing of the Aljafería of Zaragoza. The architectural type of the ribbed dome was additional developed within the Maghreb: the central dome of the Nice Mosque of Tlemcen, a masterpiece of the Almoravids based in 1082, has twelve slender ribs, the shell between the ribs is full of filigree stucco work.[70]

Ottoman domes

Sultan Ahmed Mosque

Based mostly on the mannequin of pre-existing Byzantine domes, Ottoman structure developed a selected type of monumental, consultant constructing: extensive central domes with enormous diameters have been erected on high of a centre-plan constructing. Regardless of their huge weight, the domes seem nearly weightless. Among the most elaborate domed buildings have been constructed by the Ottoman architect Mimar Sinan.

When the Ottomans had conquered Constantinople, they discovered quite a lot of Byzantine Christian church buildings, the biggest and most outstanding amongst them was the Hagia Sophia. The brickwork-and-mortar ribs and the spherical shell of the central dome of the Hagia Sophia have been constructed concurrently, as a self-supporting construction with none wood centring.[72] Within the early Byzantine church of Hagia Irene, the ribs of the dome vault are totally built-in into the shell, just like Western Roman domes, and thus are usually not seen from inside the constructing.[73] Within the dome of the Hagia Sophia, the ribs and shell of the dome unite in a central medallion on the apex of the dome, the higher ends of the ribs being built-in into the shell; shell and ribs kind one single structural entity. In later Byzantine buildings, just like the Kalenderhane Mosque, the Eski Imaret Mosque (previously the Monastery of Christ Pantepoptes) or the Pantokrator Monastery (at the moment Zeyrek Mosque), the central medallion of the apex and the ribs of the dome grew to become separate structural parts: the ribs are extra pronounced and hook up with the central medallion, which additionally stands out extra pronouncedly, in order that the whole building gives the look as if ribs and medallion are separate from, and underpin, the right shell of the dome.[74] Elaborately adorned ceilings and dome interiors draw affect from Close to Japanese and Mediterranean architectural ornament whereas additionally serving as express and symbolic representations of the heavens. These dome formed architectural options may very well be seen on the early Islamic palaces comparable to Qusayr ῾amra (c.712–15) and Khirbat al-mafjar (c.724–43).[75]

Mimar Sinan solved the structural problems with the Hagia Sophia dome by developing a system of centrally symmetric pillars with flanking semi-domes, as exemplified by the design of the Süleymaniye Mosque (4 pillars with two flanking defend partitions and two semi-domes, 1550–1557), the Rüstem Pasha Mosque (eight pillars with 4 diagonal semi-domes, 1561–1563), and the Selimiye Mosque in Edirne (eight pillars with 4 diagonal semi-domes, 1567/8–1574/5). Within the historical past of structure, the construction of the Selimiye Mosque has no precedent. All parts of the constructing are subordinate to its nice dome.[76][77][78]

Balconies and screens

Balconies are a typical function of Islamic home structure as a result of heat climates in most nations. One of many mosque recognizable varieties is the mashrabiya, a wood lattice display screen which tasks from the facet of a constructing and which protected privateness by allowed these inside to look exterior with out being seen from exterior.[79][80] One other kind of lattice display screen, not restricted to balconies, is the jali, which is widespread to Indo-Islamic structure and is fabricated from perforated stone.[81] Different examples of balconies and associated constructions embody the jharokha in Rajasthani and Indo-Islamic structure and the mirador, a Spanish time period utilized to a balcony or lookout pavilion in Andalusi palaces just like the Alhambra.[82] Balconies additionally grew to become an architectural factor inside some mosques, such because the hünkâr mahfili in Ottoman mosques, a separate and guarded house the place the sultan might carry out his prayers (just like a maqsura). An analogous function can also be discovered within the Bara Gunbad complicated (late fifteenth century) in Delhi.[82]


The architectural factor of muqarnas developed in northeastern Iran and the Maghreb across the center of the Tenth century. The decoration is created by the geometric subdivision of a vaulting construction into miniature, superimposed pointed-arch substructures, also called “honeycomb”, or “stalactite” vaults. Constituted of totally different supplies like stone, brick, wooden or stucco, its use in structure unfold over the whole Islamic world. Within the Islamic West, muqarnas are additionally used to adorn the skin of a dome, cupola, or comparable construction, whereas within the East is extra restricted to the inside face of a vault.


As a typical function, Islamic structure makes use of particular decorative types, together with mathematically difficult, elaborate geometric patterns, floral motifs just like the arabesque, and elaborate calligraphic inscriptions, which serve to embellish a constructing, specify the intention of the constructing by the choice of the textual program of the inscriptions. For instance, the calligraphic inscriptions adorning the Dome of the Rock embody quotations from the Quran (e.g., Quran 19:33–35) which reference the miracle of Jesus and his human nature.

The geometric or floral, interlaced types, taken collectively, represent an infinitely repeated sample that extends past the seen materials world.[83] To many within the Islamic world, they symbolize the idea of infinite proves of existence of 1 everlasting God. Moreover, the Islamic artist conveys a particular spirituality with out the iconography of Christian artwork. Non-figural ornaments are utilized in mosques and buildings across the Muslim world, and it’s a means of adorning utilizing stunning, embellishing and repetitive Islamic artwork as a substitute of utilizing photos of people and animals (which some Muslims imagine is forbidden (Haram) in Islam).

Capitals are the higher half or crowing function of a column or pilaster. They function a transition piece between the shaft of the construction and the factor it helps. Capitals vary drastically in design and form in Islamic Structure. Early Islamic buildings in Iran featured “Persian” kind capitals which included designs of bulls heads, whereas Mediterranean constructions displayed a extra classical affect.[84]

Different parts of spiritual structure

Qibla orientation

The qiblah (قِـبْـلَـة) is the path by which Mecca is from any given location, in the direction of which Muslims face throughout prayers. Inside Islamic structure it’s a main part of each the options and the orientation of the constructing itself.[85] Mosques and spiritual constructions are constructed to have one facet aligned with this path, normally marked by a visible function known as a mihrab. The structure of some Muslim cities could have additionally been influenced by this orientation.[85] In observe, nonetheless, the qibla alignments of mosques constructed in several intervals and places don’t all level to the identical place.[85] This is because of discrepancies within the calculations of the Islamic scientists up to now who decided the place Mecca was from their particular person places. Students notice that these variations come about for a large number of causes, comparable to some misunderstanding the which means of qibla itself, the truth that the geographic coordinates of the previous don’t line up with the coordinates of at the moment, and that the willpower of this path was extra an astronomical calculation, fairly than a mathematical one. Early mosques have been constructed in line with both the calculations of what path qibla was roughly, or with the mihrab going through south, as that was the path that Muhammad was going through when he prayed in Medina, which is a metropolis instantly north of Mecca.[85]


The mihrab is a distinct segment or alcove, usually concave, set into the qibla wall (the wall standing within the path of prayer) of a mosque or different prayer house. It symbolized and indicated the path of the qibla to worshippers. It additionally acquired ritual and ceremonial significance over time, and its form was even used as a logo on some coinage.[86][87] The very first mosques didn’t have mihrabs; the primary identified concave mihrab area of interest was the one added to the Prophet’s Mosque in Medina by Caliph al-Walid I in 706 or 707.[86][30] In later mosques the mihrab advanced to turn into the same old focus of architectural ornament within the constructing. The small print of its form and supplies diverse from area to area.[87] In congregational mosques, the mihrab was normally flanked by a minbar (pulpit), and a few historic mosques additionally included a close-by maqsura (a protected house for the ruler throughout prayers).


The minaret is a tower that historically accompanies a mosque constructing. Its formal perform is to offer a vantage level from which the decision to prayer, or adhān, is made. The decision to prayer is issued 5 instances every day: daybreak, midday, mid-afternoon, sundown, and evening. In most fashionable mosques, the adhān is made instantly from the prayer corridor and broadcast through microphone to a speaker system on the minaret.[88]

The origin of the minaret and its preliminary capabilities are usually not clearly identified and have lengthy been a subject of scholarly dialogue.[89][90] The earliest mosques lacked minarets, and the decision to prayer was typically carried out from smaller tower constructions.[91][92][93] The early Muslim group of Medina gave the decision to prayer from the doorway or the roof of the home of Muhammad, which doubled as a spot for prayer.[94] The primary confirmed minarets within the type of towers date from the early Ninth century below Abbasid rule and they didn’t turn into an ordinary function of mosques till the eleventh century.[95][96] These first minaret towers have been positioned in the midst of the wall reverse the qibla wall.[97] Amongst them, the minaret of the Nice Mosque of Kairouan in Tunisia, courting from 836, is without doubt one of the oldest surviving minarets on the earth and the oldest in North Africa.[24][96][98] It has the form of a large tower with a sq. base, three ranges of lowering widths, and a complete peak of 31.5 meters.[99][100]

Minarets have had numerous types (generally spherical, squared, spiral or octagonal) relying on the interval and architectural custom. The variety of minarets by mosques shouldn’t be mounted; initially one minaret would accompany every mosque, however some architectural types can embody a number of minarets.[101]

Cities and cities

City and nomadic life in line with Ibn Khaldun

Throughout its historical past, the society of the pre-modern Islamic world was dominated by two vital social contexts, nomadic life and Urbanism. The historian and politician Ibn Khaldun completely discusses each ideas in his ebook Muqaddimah. In keeping with him, the lifestyle and tradition of the agricultural bedouin nomads and the townspeople are opposed in a central social battle. Ibn Khaldun explains the rise and fall of civilizations by his idea of Asabiyyah (“bond of cohesion”, or “household loyalty”), as exemplified by the rule of the caliphs. Bedouins, being the nomadic inhabitants of the steppe and the desert, are interconnected by sturdy bonds of asabiyyah and agency non secular beliefs. These bonds are likely to slacken in city communities over some generations. In parallel, by dropping their asabiyyah, the townspeople additionally lose the ability to defend themselves, and fall victims to extra aggressive tribes which can destroy the town and arrange a brand new ruling dynasty, which over time is topic to the identical weakening of energy once more.[102]

Experiments with numerous preferrred metropolis fashions

The vintage idea of the structure of a metropolis relies on a construction of predominant and smaller roads working by means of the whole metropolis, and dividing it into quarters. The streets are oriented in the direction of public buildings like a palace, temple, or a public sq.. Two predominant roads, (cardo and decumanus) cross one another at proper angles within the middle of the town. Just a few cities have been based throughout the early Islamic Umayyad Caliphate, the outlines of which have been primarily based on the Historical Roman idea of the best metropolis. An instance of a metropolis deliberate in line with such ideas was excavated at Anjar in Lebanon.[103] Donald Whitcomb argues that the early Muslim conquests initiated a acutely aware try to recreate particular morphological options attribute of earlier western and southwestern Arabian cities.[104]

Transformation of conquered cities

Extra typically than founding new cities, the brand new Islamic rulers took over present cities, and reworked them in line with the wants of the brand new Islamic society. This strategy of transformation proved to be decisive for the event of the standard Islamic metropolis, or Medina.[105] The precept of arranging buildings is called “horizontal unfold”. Residencies and public buildings in addition to personal housing are usually laid out individually, and are usually not instantly associated to one another architectonically. Archaeological excavations on the metropolis of Jerash, the Gerasa of Antiquity, have revealed how the Umayyads have reworked the town plan.[106]

City morphology of the Medina

The structure of the “oriental”-Islamic city relies on cultural and sociological ideas which differ from these of European cities. In each cultures, a distinction is made between the areas utilized by the rulers and their authorities and administration, public locations of on a regular basis widespread life, and the areas of personal life. Whereas the constructions and ideas of European cities originated from a sociological wrestle to realize fundamental rights of freedom—or city privileges—from political or non secular authorities throughout the Center Ages, an Islamic city or metropolis is basically influenced by the preservation of the unity of secular and spiritual life all through time.[107]

In a medina, palaces and residences in addition to public locations like mosque-madrasa-hospital complexes and personal dwelling areas fairly coexist alongside one another. The buildings are usually extra inwardly oriented, and are separated from the encompassing “exterior” both by partitions or by the hierarchical ordering of the streets, or each. Streets have a tendency to guide from public predominant roads to cul-de-sac byroads and onwards into extra personal plots, after which finish there. There aren’t any, or only a few, inside connections between totally different quarters of the town. To be able to transfer from one quarter to the following, one has to return to the principle street once more.[107]

Inside a metropolis quarter, byroads lead in the direction of particular person constructing complexes or clusters of homes. The person home is often additionally oriented in the direction of an inside atrium, and enclosed by partitions, which largely are unadorned, not like European outward-oriented, consultant facades. Thus, the spatial construction of a medina primarily displays the traditional nomadic custom of dwelling in a household group or tribe, held collectively by asabiyya, strictly separated from the “exterior”. Generally, the morphology of an Islamic medina is granting—or denying—entry in line with the fundamental idea of hierarchical levels of privateness. The inhabitants transfer from public house to the dwelling quarters of their tribe, and onwards to their household dwelling. Inside a household home, there are once more to be discovered widespread and separate areas, the latter, and most personal, normally reserved for girls and youngsters. In the long run, solely the household heads have free and limitless entry to all rooms and areas of their personal dwelling, versus the extra European idea of interconnecting totally different areas totally free and quick access. The hierarchy of privateness thus guides and structurizes the whole social life in a medina, from the caliph right down to his most humble topic, from the city to the home.[108]

Frontier fortresses and cities

Mosque in Qasr al-Hallabat

Entrance courtyard of Qasr al-Hallabat

Misr, ribat

Within the frontier space of the Arabic growth, army forts (misr, Pl. أَمْـصَـار, amṣār), or ribāṭ (رِبَـاط, fortress) have been based. The construction and performance of a misr is just like an historic Roman Colonia.[109] Like a frontier colony, the fortress served as a base for additional conquests. Arabian army forts of this sort have been often constructed within the neighborhood of an older city from Antiquity or from Byzantine instances. They often have been of sq. format.[110]

Reasonably than sustaining their authentic function to function a army base, many amṣār developed into urbane and administrative facilities. Particularly, this occurred within the case of the Iraqi cities of Kufa and Basra, which grew to become referred to as al-miṣrān (“the [two] forts”), but in addition with Fustat and Kairouan in North Africa.


Qaṣr (قَصْـر; pl. قصور, quṣūr) means palace, fort or (frontier) fort. Fortresses from Late Antiquity typically continued to be in use, whereas their perform modified throughout time. Some quṣūr have been already used as Castra throughout Roman instances, and have been a part of the fortifications of the North African limes. Already throughout the Historical Roman instances, castra didn’t solely function fortifications, but in addition as markets and assembly factors for the tribes dwelling past the border.

Smaller quṣūr are present in fashionable Jordan, and embody Qasr Al-Hallabat (positioned 50 km (31 mi) east of Amman), Qasr Bushir (15 km (9.3 mi) north of Lajjun), the fort of Daganiya (45 km (28 mi) north of Ma’an) and Odruh (22 km (14 mi) east of Wadi Musa). After the Limes Arabicus was deserted by the Roman Empire, lots of the castra continued to be in use.[111] This continuity was topic to archaeological investigations within the fort of Qasr al-Hallabat, which at totally different instances served as a Roman castrum, Christian cenobitic monastery, and eventually as an Umayyad Qasr.[112] Qasr Al-Kharanah is without doubt one of the earliest identified Desert castles, its architectural kind clearly demonstrates the affect of Sasanian structure.

In keeping with a speculation developed by Jean Sauvaget, the umayyad quṣūr performed a job within the systematic agricultural colonisation of the uninhabited frontier areas, and, as such, proceed the colonisation technique of earlier Christian monks and the Ghassanids.[113] The Umayyads, nonetheless, more and more oriented their political technique in the direction of a mannequin of Shopper politics, of mutual interdependence and help.[114] After the Umayyad conquest, the quṣūr misplaced their authentic perform and have been both deserted or continued to function native market locations and assembly factors till the Tenth century.[111] One other kind of Islamic fortress is the Qalat.


Early Islamic structure was influenced by two totally different historic traditions:

  1. Greco-Roman custom: Particularly, the areas of the newly conquered Byzantine Empire (Southwestern Anatolia, Syria, Egypt and the Maghreb) provided architects, masons, mosaicists and different craftsmen to the brand new Islamic rulers. These artisans have been educated in Byzantine structure and ornamental arts, and continued constructing and adorning in Byzantine type, which had developed out of Hellenistic and historic Roman structure.
  2. Japanese custom: Mesopotamia and Persia, regardless of adopting parts of Hellenistic and Roman consultant type, retained their unbiased architectural traditions, which derived from Sasanian structure and its predecessors.[50]

The transition course of between late Antiquity, or post-classical, and Islamic structure is exemplified by archaeologic findings in North Syria and Palestine, the Bilad al-Sham of the Umayyad and Abbasid dynasties. On this area, late vintage, or Christian, architectural traditions merged with the pre-Islamic Arabian heritage of the conquerors. Current analysis on the historical past of Islamic artwork and structure has revised quite a few colonialistic concepts. Particularly, the next questions are presently topic to renewed discussions within the mild of current findings and new ideas of cultural historical past:[original research?]

  1. the existence of a linear growth inside the Islamic structure;
  2. the existence of an inter- and intracultural hierarchy of types;
  3. questions of cultural authenticity and its delineation.[115]

In comparison with earlier analysis, the assimilation and transformation of pre-existing architectural traditions is investigated below the side of mutual intra- and intercultural change of concepts, applied sciences and types in addition to artists, architects, and supplies. Within the space of artwork and structure, the rise of Islam is seen as a steady transformation course of main from late Antiquity to the Islamic interval.[citation needed][original research?] Early analysis into the world regarded early Islamic structure merely as a break with the previous, from which apparently rose a distorted and fewer expressive type of artwork,[116] or a degenerate imitation of the post-classical architectural types.[117] Trendy ideas have a tendency to treat the transition between the cultures fairly as a selective strategy of knowledgeable appropriation and transformation.[original research?] The Umayyads performed a vital function on this course of of remodeling and thereby enriching the present architectural traditions, or, in a extra basic sense, of the visible tradition of the nascent Islamic society.[118]

The Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem (late Seventh century)

The Dome of the Rock (قُـبَّـة ٱلـصَّـخْـرَة, Qubbat aṣ-Ṣakhrah) in Jerusalem (691) is without doubt one of the most vital buildings in all of Islamic structure. It’s patterned after the close by Church of the Holy Sepulchre[119] and Byzantine Christian artists have been employed to create its elaborate mosaics towards a golden background.[120][121] The good epigraphic vine frieze was tailored from the pre-Islamic Syrian type.[122] The Nice Mosque of Damascus (accomplished in 715 by caliph Al-Walid I),[123] constructed on the location of the basilica of John the Baptist after the Islamic invasion of Damascus, nonetheless bore nice resemblance to sixth and seventh century Christian basilicas. Sure modifications have been applied, together with increasing the construction alongside the transversal axis which higher match with the Islamic type of prayer.[citation needed]

The Abbasid dynasty (750 AD- 1258[124]) witnessed the motion of the capital from Damascus to Baghdad, after which from Baghdad to Samarra. The shift to Baghdad influenced politics, tradition, and artwork. Abbasid structure drew extra closely on the architectural traditions of Mesopotomia and Iran, which had been a part of the Sassanian Empire.[125] The Nice Mosque of Kairouan, in its present kind was largely constructed throughout the Ninth century below the Aghlabids, who dominated on behalf of the Abbasids.[125] Its authentic marble columns and capitals have been of Roman workmanship introduced in from Carthage and different parts resemble Roman kind.[126][127]

Influenced by Byzantine and Persian structure,[128][additional citation(s) needed] the pointed arch as an architectonic precept was first clearly established in Islamic structure and was totally alien to the pre-Islamic world.[129] Particularly within the Persianate world, the marginally “depressed” four-centred arch or “Persian arch”, has been the commonest type used.[citation needed]


There was a long-standing perception in western scholarship that the Arabs of the early Seventh century, on the time of Muhammad, when have been nomadic pastoralists who didn’t have sturdy architectural traditions and merely adopted the pre-Islamic types and concepts of the conquered areas. This view is now typically rejected and regarded out of date by fashionable students.[130][131] In keeping with scholar Beatrice Saint Laurent, early educational investigations into the historical past of Islamic monumental structure led to the “flawed view that noticed the roots of an Early Islamic monumental structure and artwork solely within the traditions of the conquered areas”.[132] As a substitute, students typically agree {that a} wealthy architectural custom preceded the looks of Islam in Arabia and the primary Islamic monuments.[133][134]

Common scholarship holds that pre-Islamic structure within the Arabian Peninsula had solely restricted affect on the next growth of Islamic structure, a minimum of by comparability with the influences of present architectural traditions within the conquered territories past the peninsula.[14][13][12][15] The foremost architectural contribution that passed off in Arabia throughout the early Islamic interval was the event of the Muslim mosque.[135] Mosque (Masjid) is a pre-Islamic phrase attested in inscriptions in pre-Islamic Arabia. The Arab hypostyle mosque constructed by the Prophet Muhammad in Medina served as a mannequin for mosque design all through the Islamic world.[136] The Umayyad mosque of Damascus reproduced the hypostyle mannequin at a monumental scale. Umayyad non secular structure was the earliest expression of Islamic artwork on a grand scale.[137] The Arab elite of the early Islam have been metropolis dwellers of Mecca, Medina, Ta’if and the extremely urbanized society of Yemen whose Arabian traditions contributed to the city growth of the early Islamic cities.[138][139] Furthermore, the Umayyads didn’t come from a cultural void and have been conscious of their very own Arabian cultural historical past.[140][141] Students counsel they sought to proceed sure pre-Islamic Arabian architectural traditions.[142]

In different areas, the early army encampments of Kufa, Basra, Fustat, Kairouan have been quickly reworked into everlasting foundations and deliberate cities. One of many traditions contributing to the early Islamic metropolis was the south Arabian metropolis comparable to Sana’a, to which sort Mecca and Fustat belonged.[143] Two city varieties primarily based on social group have been proposed. The primary known as the San’a-formation, developed from a market middle and inhabited by teams of the identical tribe with social differentiation primarily based on his “farmer-craftsman” technological specializations. The second city kind is the Tarim-formation, by which quarter group displays the social construction of a multi-tribal settlement.[144]

The Arab mosque plan strongly influenced mosque structure in non-Arab areas as nicely, particularly within the early centuries of Islam. The essential plan and elements of the Arab hypostyle mosque plan may very well be diverse at will with a purpose to rework or emphasize sure elements of the construction, giving the construction a substantial longevity. Nonetheless, many of the room for improvements inside this mosque kind had been exhausted by the Tenth century. Within the structure of Iran, the hypostyle plan was launched as the fundamental mosque structure, introduced by the Arabs (the mosques in Siraf, Nayin and Damghan). The early mosques have been due to this fact imported international parts that didn’t have roots in earlier designs.[145][146] The Arab hypostyle mosque plan additionally had a powerful affect on Chinese language mosque structure, Chinese language mosques adopted Arabian structure absorbed by means of Chinese language basic structure.[147] The Arab type Qingjing mosque is the oldest of its form in China and is a UNESCO world Heritage website.

The absence of figurative illustration and the tendency in the direction of abstraction and geometrisation is an Arabian idea that types a foundational side in Islam with deep penalties for the event of its inventive and architectural id.[148]

The phrase Mihrab comes from Outdated South Arabian which means a sure a part of a palace, in addition to “a part of a temple the place “a sure kind of visions is obtained”. The mihrab appears to have maintained its pre-Islamic perform because the place of a ruler and should have been added to commemorate the presence of the Prophet as the primary imam Within the earliest years of Islam.[149][150]

Regional types (after the Tenth century)


Tarikhaneh Temple, a pre-Islamic monument in-built Sasanian Persia which was later changed into a mosque, displaying parts of Iranian structure earlier than the unfold of Islam

Underneath the Seljuqs the “Iranian plan” of mosque building seems for the primary time. Lodging locations (khān, or caravanserai) for travellers and their animals, typically displayed utilitarian fairly than decorative structure, with rubble masonry, sturdy fortifications, and minimal consolation.[151] Seljuq structure synthesized numerous types, each Iranian and Syrian, generally rendering exact attributions tough. One other vital architectural development to come up within the Tenth to eleventh centuries is the event of mausolea together with the tomb tower such because the Gunbad-i-qabus (circa 1006-7) (showcasing a Zoroastrian motif) and the domed sq., an instance of which is the tomb of the Samanids within the metropolis of Bukhara (circa 943).[152]

The Il-Khanate interval supplied a number of improvements to dome-building that ultimately enabled the Persians to assemble a lot taller constructions. These modifications later paved the best way for Safavid structure. The head of Il-Khanate structure was reached with the development of the Soltaniyeh Dome (1302–1312) in Zanjan, Iran, which measures 50 m in peak and 25 m in diameter, making it the third largest and the tallest masonry dome ever erected.[153] The skinny, double-shelled dome was bolstered by arches between the layers.[154] The tomb of Öljeitü in Soltaniyeh is without doubt one of the biggest and most spectacular monuments in Iran, regardless of many later depredations.

The Registan is the ensemble of three madrasas, in Samarkand, modern-day Uzbekistan

Iranian structure and metropolis planning additionally reached an apogee below the Timurids, particularly with the monuments of Samarkand, marked by intensive use of exterior ceramic tiles and muqarnas vaulting inside. Spectacular and stately edifices erected by Timur and his successors in Samarkand and Herat helped to disseminate the affect of the Ilkhanid college of artwork in India, thus giving rise to the celebrated Mughal college of structure.[citation needed] Timurid structure began with the sanctuary of Ahmed Yasawi in present-day Kazakhstan and culminated in Timur’s mausoleum Gur-e Amir in Samarkand. The type is basically derived from Persian structure. Axial symmetry is a attribute of all main Timurid constructions, notably the Shah-i-Zinda in Samarkand and the mosque of Gawhar Shad in Mashhad. Double domes of varied shapes abound, and the outsides are perfused with good colours.

Shah Mosque in Naqsh-e Jahan Sq., Isfahan, Iran

The renaissance in Persian mosque and dome constructing got here throughout the Safavid dynasty, when Shah Abbas, in 1598 initiated the reconstruction of Isfahan, with the Naqsh-e Jahan Sq. because the centerpiece of his new capital.[155] The distinct function of Persian domes, which separates them from these domes created within the Christian world or the Ottoman and Mughal empires, was the colourful tiles, with which they lined the exterior of their domes, as they’d on the inside. These domes quickly numbered dozens in Isfahan, and the distinct, blue- coloured form would dominate the skyline of the town. Reflecting the sunshine of the solar, these domes appeared like glittering turquoise gem and may very well be seen from miles away by vacationers following the Silk street by means of Persia. This very distinct type of structure was inherited to them from the Seljuq dynasty, who for hundreds of years had used it of their mosque constructing, but it surely was perfected throughout the Safavids after they invented the haft- rangi, or seven- color type of tile burning, a course of that enabled them to use extra colors to every tile, creating richer patterns, sweeter to the attention.[156] The colors that the Persians favoured have been golden, white and turquoise patterns on a dark- blue background.[157] The intensive inscription bands of calligraphy and arabesque on many of the main buildings the place fastidiously deliberate and executed by Ali Reza Abbasi, who was appointed head of the royal library and Grasp calligrapher on the Shah’s court docket in 1598,[158] whereas Shaykh Bahai oversaw the development tasks. Reaching 53 meters in peak, the dome of Masjed-e Shah (Shah Mosque) would turn into the tallest within the metropolis when it was completed in 1629. It was constructed as a double- shelled dome, with 14 m spanning between the 2 layers, and resting on an octagonal dome chamber.[159]

The Bibi-Heybat Mosque in Baku, Azerbaijan

Persian-style mosques are additionally characterised by their tapered brick pillars, massive arcades and arches every supported by a number of pillars. In South Asia, such artwork was additionally used as was a method all through the area.[160]

The Islamic conquest of Persia within the seventh century additionally helped Islamic structure to flourish in Azerbaijan.[161][162] The nation grew to become dwelling of Nakchivan and Shirvan-Absheron structure faculties. An instance of the primary path within the Azerbaijani Islamic structure is the mausoleum of Yusuf, in-built 1162.[citation needed] The Shirvan-Absheron college, not like Nakchivan type, used stones as a substitute of the bricks within the building. On the identical traits of this development have been the asymmetry and stone carving, which incorporates well-known landmarks like Palace of the Shirvanshahs.


Nice Seljuks and early Turkic dynasties

Turkic peoples started transferring into the Center East from the eighth century onward and, after changing to Islam, grew to become main political and army forces within the area. The primary main Turkic dynasty was the Ghaznavids, who dominated from Ghazna in present-day Afghanistan and adopted a Persianate tradition. Within the second half of the Twelfth century the Ghurids, of unsure ethnic origin, changed them as the most important energy within the area from northern India to the sting of the Caspian Sea.[163][164] Among the many most exceptional monuments of those two dynasties are quite a few ornate brick towers and minarets which have survived as stand-alone constructions. Their whose precise capabilities are unclear. They embody the Tower of Mas’ud III close to Ghazna (early Twelfth century) and the Minaret of Jam constructed by the Ghurids (late Twelfth century).[165][166] Across the identical time, between the late Tenth century and the early Thirteenth century, the Turkic Qarakhanids dominated in Transoxiana. This era is considered a “classical” age of Central Asian structure, with many spectacular constructions going down in Bukhara and Samarkand. These embody a fantastic congregational mosque in Bukhara, of which solely the Kalyan Minaret survives (c. 1127), the close by Minaret of Vabkent (1141), and several other Qarakhanid mausoleums with monumental façades, comparable to these in Uzgen (present-day Kyrgyzstan) from the second half of the Twelfth century.[167]

Extra important was the arrival of the Seljuk Turks and the formation of the Nice Seljuk Empire within the eleventh century, which conquered all of Iran and different intensive territories in Central Asia and the Center East. An important non secular monument from the Nice Seljuk interval is the Jameh Mosque of Isfahan, which was expanded and modified by numerous Seljuk patrons within the late eleventh century and early Twelfth century. Two main and revolutionary domed chambers have been added to it within the late eleventh century. 4 massive iwans have been then erected across the courtyard across the early Twelfth century, giving rise to the four-iwan plan.[168][169][170] The four-iwan plan revolutionised the shape and performance of the mosques within the area and launched new forms of buildings involving madrasas and caravanserais which unfold by means of Iran, Anatolia, and Syria.[171] Massive caravanserais have been constructed as a technique to foster commerce and assert Seljuk authority within the countryside. They usually consisted of a constructing with a fortified exterior look, monumental entrance portal, and inside courtyard surrounded by numerous halls, together with iwans. Some notable examples, solely partly preserved, are the caravanserais of Ribat-i Malik (c. 1068–1080) and Ribat-i Sharaf (Twelfth century) in Transoxiana and Khorasan, respectively.[172][173][174] The Seljuks additionally continued to construct “tower tombs”, an Iranian constructing kind from earlier intervals, such because the Toghrul Tower in-built Rayy (south of present-day Tehran) in 1139. Extra revolutionary, nonetheless, was the introduction of mausoleums with a sq. or polygonal flooring plan, which later grew to become a typical type of monumental tombs. Early examples of this are the 2 Kharraqan Mausoleums (1068 and 1093) close to Qazvin (northern Iran), which have octagonal types, and the big Mausoleum of Sanjar (c. 1152) in Merv (present-day Turkmenistan), which has a sq. base.[175]

After the decline of the Nice Seljuks within the late Twelfth century numerous Turkic dynasties fashioned smaller states and empires. A department of the Seljuk dynasty dominated a Sultanate in Anatolia (also called the Anatolian Seljuks), the Zengids and Artuqids dominated in Northern Mesopotomia (referred to as the Jazira) and close by areas, and the Khwarazmian Empire dominated over Iran and Central Asia till the Mongol invasions of the Thirteenth century.[164] Underneath Zengid and Artuqid rule cities like Mosul, Diyarbakir, Hasankeyf, and Mardin grew to become vital facilities of architectural growth that had a long-term affect within the wider areas of Anatolia and Syria.[176][177] Probably the most notable monuments within the area is the Nice Mosque of Diyarbakir, based within the Seventh century however rebuilt by the Artuqids within the Twelfth century. It’s comparable in kind to the Umayyad Mosque of Damascus and has ornate Classical-like parts on its courtyard façade.[178][179] The town partitions of Diyarbakir additionally function a number of towers constructed by the Artuqids and adorned with a mixture of calligraphic inscriptions and figurative pictures of animals and mythological creatures carved in stone. One of many culminations of later Artuqid structure is the Zinciriye or Sultan Isa Madrasa in Mardin, courting from 1385.[180] In Mosul, the Zengid ruler Nur al-Din constructed the al-Nuri Mosque (1148 and 1170–1172), of which solely the unique minaret was preserved as much as fashionable instances.[178] (The minaret and the rebuilt mosque have been lately destroyed within the Battle of Mosul.[181]) Damascus regained some prominence after it got here below Nur al-Din’s management in 1154. That very same yr, Nur al-Din based a hospital complicated, the Maristan al-Nuri or Bimaristan of Nur al-Din, which was extremely influential within the Islamic world and is notable for the muqarnas vaulting of its entrance portal and a muqarnas dome of Mesopotamian affect over the vestibule.[182][183][184] The Zengids and their successors, the Kurdish Ayyubid dynasty, constructed many extra madrasas, fortifications, hammams, and different charitable buildings within the cities of Syria. In contrast to Seljuk and Iranian madrasas, the Syrian madrasas have been smaller and extra various of their layouts, tailored to the dense city material of cities like Damascus and Aleppo.[185][186] In Central Asia, the previous Khwarazmian capital, Kunya-Urgench (present-day Turkmenistan), has preserved a number of constructions from the Khwarazmian Empire interval (late Twelfth and early Thirteenth century), together with the so-called Mausoleum of Fakhr al-Din Razi (probably the tomb of Il-Arslan) and the Mausoleum of Sultan Tekesh.[187][188]

Anatolian Seljuks and Beyliks

Portal of the Nice Mosque of Divriği (1228–1229)

The Anatolian Seljuks dominated a territory that was multi-ethnic and solely newly-settled by Muslims. Because of this, their structure was eclectic and integrated influences from different cultures comparable to Iranian, Armenian, and native Byzantine structure.[189][190][191]In distinction with Seljuk constructions additional east, Anatolian structure was fabricated from stone and extra of their monuments have been preserved as much as fashionable instances.[191] The golden age of their Anatolian empire, with its capital at Konya, was within the early Thirteenth century. Seljuk authority declined after their defeat by the hands of the Mongols within the Battle of Köse Dağ in 1243. In jap Anatolia the Mongol Ilkhanids dominated not directly by means of Seljuk vassals at first and earlier than taking direct management after 1308.[192][193] Smaller principalities and emirates emerged domestically, identified collectively because the Beyliks. Regardless of this decline, the Seljuk custom of structure largely continued and continued to evolve below these new rulers.[193]

The four-iwan plan, developed below the sooner Seljuks in Iran, didn’t seem in Anatolian Seljuk mosques.[191] The congregational mosques of Anatolian Seljuks included extra conservative hypostyle constructions alongside much less conventional flooring plans. Main hypostyle examples embody the Nice Mosque of Sivas (1197) and the Alaeddin Mosque of Konya (constructed over a number of intervals between 1156 and 1235, with later additions).[194][195] The “wood” mosque, a variation of the hypostyle mosque with wood columns and ceilings, emerged in western central Anatolia within the Thirteenth century. The earliest instance is the Nice Mosque of Sivrihisar (1232) and essentially the most completed instance is the Eşrefoğlu Mosque (1297) in Beyşehir.[196][197] Mosques within the later Beylik interval have been extra various, together with the Saruhanid congregational mosque in Manisa (1371), the Isa Bey Mosque in Selçuk (1374), and the İlyas Bey Mosque in Miletus (1304).[193]

Quite a few madrasas have been constructed. Architecturally, they consisted primarily of two varieties. One kind, just like these of Iran and Mesopotamia, was centered round an open courtyard which was bordered by a various variety of iwans (with a minimum of one iwan located alongside the axis of the doorway). In these madrasas the ornament was concentrated round a monumental entrance portal. The Çifte Minareli Medrese (c. 1250 or 1253) in Erzurum is without doubt one of the earliest examples of an entrance portal surmounted by twin minarets. The Gök Medrese (1271–1272) in Sivas is one other wealthy monument in the same kind. The second kind of madrasa, which was explicit to Anatolia, was a smaller madrasa with a central court docket lined by a dome. These have been particularly attribute of Konya, exemplified by the Karatay Medrese (1251–1252) and Ince Minareli Medrese (c. 1265).[198][199][200]

Among the most spectacular Seljuk monuments have been caravanserais constructed alongside many commerce routes between cities. Tons of of them have been constructed within the Thirteenth century. The foremost examples of this sort, such because the Sultan Han on the Konya–Aksaray street (1229) and the Sultan Han on the Kayseri–Sivas street (1236–1237), have a monumental however fortified exterior look with an entrance portal of adorned carved stone resulting in an open-air inside courtyard. Within the middle of those courtyards there’s generally a small cubic prayer room raised above the bottom on 4 pillars. On the alternative facet of the doorway one other portal led to a lined corridor with many aisles working perpendicular to a central aisle with a central dome.[201][199]

Ornament in Anatolian Seljuk structure was targeting sure parts like entrance portals, home windows, and the mihrabs of mosques. Stone-carving was one of the completed mediums of ornament, with motifs starting from earlier Iranian stucco motifs to native Byzantine and Armenian motifs. The madrasas of Sivas and the Ince Minareli Medrese in Konya among the many most notable examples, whereas the Nice Mosque and Hospital complicated of Divriği is distinguished by among the most eclectic and indulgent stone-carving within the area. Syrian-style ablaq striped marble additionally seems on the doorway portal of the Karatay Medrese and the Alaeddin Mosque in Konya. Though tilework was generally utilized in Iran, Anatolian structure innovated in the usage of tile revetments to cowl total surfaces independently of different types of ornament. That is seen within the Karatay Medrese and likewise evidenced by the mosaic tiles recovered from the stays of the Kubadabad Palace (c. 1236 or early Thirteenth century).[202][199][203]


The structure of the Ottoman Empire developed from earlier Seljuk structure, with influences from Byzantine and Iranian structure together with architectural traditions of the Balkans and different elements of Center East.[204][205][206][207][208][209] The classical structure of the Ottoman Empire was a mix of native Turkish custom and influences from Hagia Sophia.[207][208] Among the finest representatives of this era is Mimar Sinan, whose works embody the Süleymaniye Mosque in Istanbul and the Selimiye Mosque in Edirne.[210][211]

Starting within the 18th century, Ottoman structure was influenced by the Baroque structure in Western Europe.[212] Nuruosmaniye Mosque is without doubt one of the surviving examples from this era.[212] The final Ottoman interval noticed extra influences from Western Europe, introduced in by architects such these from the Balyan household.[213] This era additionally noticed the event of a brand new architectural type known as neo-Ottoman or Ottoman revivalism, also called the First Nationwide Architectural Motion,[214] by architects comparable to Mimar Kemaleddin and Vedat Tek.[213]

Whereas Istanbul was the principle website of imperial patronage for many of the empire’s historical past, the early capitals of Bursa and Edirne additionally comprise a focus of Ottoman monuments. Ottoman structure can also be discovered throughout the empire’s provinces, starting from Japanese Europe to the Center East to North Africa.[215][216][76] Main non secular monuments, comparable to these sponsored by sultan and his household, have been usually architectural complexes, referred to as a külliye, which had a number of parts offering numerous charitable providers. These complexes have been ruled and managed with the assistance of a vakif settlement (Arabic waqf).[215] For instance, the Fatih Mosque in Istanbul was a part of a really massive külliye based by Mehmed II, constructed between 1463 and 1470, which additionally included: a tabhane (guesthouse for vacationers), an imaret (charitable kitchen), a darüşşifa (hospital), a caravanserai, a mektep (major college), a library, a hammam (bathhouse), a cemetery with the founder’s mausoleum, and eight madrasas together with their annexes. The buildings have been organized in an everyday, partly symmetrical structure with the monumental mosque at its middle, though not all of the constructions have survived to the current day.[211][216]

Iberian Peninsula and western North Africa

The architectural type which developed within the westernmost territories of the historic Muslim world is sometimes called “Moorish structure”. The time period “Moorish” comes from the European designation of the Muslim inhabitants of those areas as “Moors”.[219][220] Students generally use “Western Islamic structure” or “structure of the Islamic west” as a extra exact time period for this topic.[38][39] This architectural type developed primarily in Al-Andalus (present-day Spain and Portugal between 711 and 1492) and in western North Africa together with Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia (a part of the Maghreb).[38][39] It blended influences from Berber tradition in North Africa, pre-Islamic Spain (Roman, Byzantine, and Visigothic), and up to date inventive currents within the Islamic Center East to elaborate a novel type over centuries with recognizable options such because the “Moorish” arch, riad gardens (symmetrically-divided courtyard gardens), and elaborate geometric and arabesque motifs in wooden, stucco, and tilework (notably zellij).[38][221][220][222] Main facilities of this inventive growth included the principle capitals of the empires and Muslim states within the area’s historical past, comparable to Cordoba, Kairouan, Fes, Marrakesh, Seville, Granada and Tlemcen.[38][39] Among the many best-known monuments from these areas are the Nice Mosque of Cordoba, the palace-city of Madinat al-Zahra (close to Cordoba), the Qarawiyyin Mosque (in Fes), the Nice Mosque of Tlemcen, the Kutubiyya Mosque (Marrakesh), the Giralda tower (Seville), and the fortified palace-complex of the Alhambra (Granada).[38][39]

Even after the Christian conquests of Al-Andalus the legacy of Moorish structure was nonetheless carried on within the Mudéjar type in Spain, which made use of Moorish methods and designs and tailored them to Christian patrons.[223][224] In North Africa, the medieval Moorish type was perpetuated in Moroccan structure with comparatively few modifications, whereas in Algeria and Tunisia it grew to become blended with Ottoman structure after the Ottoman conquest of the area within the sixteenth century.[38][39] A lot later, notably within the Nineteenth century, the Moorish type was often imitated or emulated within the Neo-Moorish or Moorish Revival type which emerged in Europe and America as a part of the Romanticist curiosity within the “Orient” and likewise, notably, as a recurring selection for brand new Jewish Synagogue structure.[225][226]

Along with the final Moorish type, some types and constructions in North Africa are distinctively related to areas which have maintained sturdy Berber (Amazigh) populations and cultures, together with however not restricted to the Atlas Mountain areas of Morocco, the Aurès and M’zab areas of Algeria, and southern Tunisia.[227] They don’t kind one single type however fairly a various number of native vernacular types.[227] Berber ruling dynasties additionally contributed to the formation and patronage of western Islamic artwork and structure by means of their political domination of the area between the eleventh and sixteenth centuries (throughout the rule of the Almoravids, Almohads, Marinids and Hafsids, amongst others).[222][227][38] In Morocco, the largely Berber-inhabited rural valleys and oases of the Atlas and the south are marked by quite a few kasbahs (fortresses) and ksour (fortified villages), usually flat-roofed constructions fabricated from rammed earth and adorned with native geometric motifs, as with the well-known instance of Ait Benhaddou.[227][228][229] Likewise, southern Tunisia is dotted with hilltop ksour and multi-story fortified granaries (ghorfa), such because the examples in Medenine and Ksar Ouled Soltane, usually constructed with free stone sure by a mortar of clay.[227] The island of Jerba in Tunisia has a standard mosque structure that includes low-lying constructions in-built stone and lined in whitewash. Their prayer halls are domed they usually have quick, spherical minarets.[230][227] The M’zab area of Algeria (e.g. Ghardaïa) additionally has distinctive mosques and homes which can be fully whitewashed, however in-built rammed earth. Its constructions additionally make frequent use of domes and barrel vaults. In contrast to Jerba, the distinctive minarets listed below are tall and have a sq. base, tapering in the direction of the top and topped with “horn”-like corners.[230][227]


The Mamluks have been a army corps recruited from slaves that served below the Ayyubid dynasty and ultimately took over from that dynasty in 1250, ruling over Egypt, the Levant, and the Hijaz till the Ottoman conquest of 1517. Regardless of their typically tumultuous and violent inside politics, the Mamluk sultans have been prolific patrons of structure and contributed enormously to the repertoire of monuments in historic Cairo, their capital.[231][232] Some long-reigning sultans, comparable to Al-Nasir Muhammad (reigning between 1293 and 1341with interruptions) and Qaytbay (r. 1468-1496), have been particularly prolific. Whereas Cairo was the principle middle of patronage, Mamluk structure additionally seems in different cities of their realm comparable to Damascus, Jerusalem, Aleppo, and Medina.[233]

Mamluk structure is distinguished partially by the development of multi-functional buildings whose flooring plans grew to become more and more inventive and sophisticated as a result of restricted out there house within the metropolis and the will to make monuments visually dominant of their city environment.[234][231][232] Patrons, together with sultans and high-ranking emirs, usually got down to construct mausoleums for themselves however hooked up to them numerous charitable constructions comparable to madrasas, khanqahs, sabils, or mosques. The revenues and bills of those charitable complexes have been ruled by inalienable waqf agreements that additionally served the secondary function of making certain some type of earnings or property for the patrons’ descendants.[232][234] The cruciform or four-iwan flooring plan was adopted for madrasas and have become extra widespread for brand new monumental complexes than the standard hypostyle mosque, though the vaulted iwans of the early interval have been changed with flat-roofed iwans within the later interval.[235][236] The ornament of monuments additionally grew to become extra elaborate over time, with stone-carving and coloured marble paneling and mosaics (together with ablaq) changing stucco as essentially the most dominant architectural ornament. Monumental adorned entrance portals grew to become widespread in comparison with earlier intervals, typically carved with muqarnas. Influences from the Syrian area, Ilkhanid Iran, and probably even Venice have been evident in these tendencies.[237][238] Minarets, which have been additionally elaborate, normally consisted of three tiers separated by balconies, with every tier having a unique design than the others. Late mamluk minarets, for instance, most usually had an octagonal shaft for the primary tier, a spherical shaft on the second, and a lantern construction with finial on the third degree.[239][240] Domes additionally transitioned from wood or brick constructions, generally of bulbous form, to pointed stone domes with complicated geometric or arabesque motifs carved into their outer surfaces.[241] The height of this stone dome structure was achieved below the reign of Qaytbay within the late fifteenth century.[242]

After the Ottoman conquest of 1517, new Ottoman-style buildings have been launched, nonetheless the Mamluk type continued to be repeated or mixed with Ottoman parts in lots of subsequent monuments.[243] Some constructing varieties from the late Mamluk interval, comparable to sabil-kuttabs (a mix of sabil and kuttab) and multi-storied caravanserais (wikalas or khans), truly grew in quantity throughout the Ottoman interval.[243] In fashionable instances, from the late Nineteenth century onwards, a “neo-Mamluk” type was additionally used, partly as a nationalist response towards Ottoman and European types, in an effort to advertise native “Egyptian” types (although the architects have been generally Europeans).[244][245][246] Examples of this type are the Museum of Islamic Arts in Cairo, the Al-Rifa’i Mosque, the Abu al-Abbas al-Mursi Mosque in Alexandria, and quite a few personal and public buildings comparable to these of Heliopolis.[244][245][246][247]


The Bāb al-Yaman (بَـاب ٱلْـيَـمَـن, Gate of the Yemen) within the Outdated Metropolis of Sana’a, Yemen

Yemeni Structure might be characterised as “conservative”, because the Yemeni folks mix their pre-Islamic and Islamic previous.[252][253] This philosophy is demonstrated within the building of the mosque of Solomon in Marib, which was constructed instantly on high of an previous temple.[253] In Antiquity, Yemen was dwelling to a number of rich city-states and an indigenous custom of South Arabian structure.[254][255] Historic texts and archeological proof point out that giant and richly-decorated palaces existed in a number of cities, such because the Ghumdan Palace in Sanaa. Most of those constructions haven’t been preserved, though the stays of Shabwa, the previous capital of Ḥaḍramawt, present some proof of their construction.[254][256] By the fifth century AD, there’s proof that the indigenous types have been being influenced by Byzantine and Late Vintage Mediterranean artwork.[254] Within the fifth and sixth centuries Christianity unfold within the area and church buildings have been constructed. Abraha, a neighborhood Aksumite ruler, constructed a cathedral in Sanaa circa 567, allegedly with the assistance of two architects supplied by Byzantine emperor Justinian I.[257][254]

The Mosque of Arwa bint Ahmad in Jibla (eleventh century), an instance of a hypostyle courtyard mosque

Yemen was Islamized within the Seventh century, however few buildings from the early Islamic interval have been preserved intact at the moment. It is just from the Tenth century onward that particular Islamic architectural types might be documented.[252] After the early caliphal interval the area was dominated by numerous dynasties together with the Sulayhids (eleventh–Twelfth centuries) and Rasulids (Thirteenth–fifteenth centuries), amongst different native states.[252][255] One kind of mosque attested round this time consists of a giant cubic chamber with one entrance, which had antecedents within the pre-Islamic temple structure of the area. Examples embody the al-Abbas Mosque in Asnaf (1126, close to Sanaa) and the Mosque of Sarha (Thirteenth century, close to Ibb), which each have richly-decorated ceilings carved and painted with interlacing star-like patterns.[252][254] One other kind consisted of an oblong chamber, with a transverse orientation, with a number of entrances and supporting columns inside, generally preceded by a courtyard. Examples of this embody the Mosque of Sulayman ibn Dawud (1089) at Ma’rib and the congregational mosque of Damar (Twelfth–Thirteenth century). This sort additionally had pre-Islamic antecedents.[252]

Nice Mosque of Zabid, with one of many oldest surviving minarets in Yemen (circa Thirteenth century)

The hypostyle mosque with courtyard, which was extra widespread all through a lot of the Islamic world on the time, was comparatively uncommon in early Islamic Yemen.[252] The Nice Mosque of Sanaa, commissioned by the Umayyad caliph al-Walid (r. 705–15), was one of many few mosques of this sort within the area.[252][254] It was reconstructed in 753–4 and once more after 875. On the latter event it was rebuilt with stone and gypsum partitions and a teak roof, although these too have been repaired and restored over the centuries. The mosque’s ornament displays the a number of restorations but in addition exemplifies the very best inventive methods in Yemen over the centuries, together with carved and painted wooden, carved stone, and carved stucco.[257] One other instance of an early hypostyle courtyard mosque within the area is the Nice Mosque of Shibam (Ninth–Tenth century) and the Mosque of Arwa bint Ahmad (1087–9) in Jibla.[252][254] The Nice Mosque of Shibam, just like the Nice Mosque of Sanaa, has a richly-painted ceiling, although its columns and their capitals resemble pre-Islamic types.[252] The Mosque of Arwa bint Ahmad was reportedly a part of a Sulayhid palace earlier than being transformed to a mosque. In contrast to different native hypostyle mosques on the time, it incorporates a dome over the house in entrance of its mihrab, which is probably going as a result of Fatimid architectural affect through the Sulayhids (who acknowledged the Fatimids as caliphs).[252] Its mihrab can also be the oldest surviving well-decorated mihrab in Yemen, lined in carved arabesques and that includes an oblong body with a Kufic inscription. This design was imitated in later mihrabs within the area.[252] One of many oldest surviving minarets in Yemen is the brick minaret of the Nice Mosque of Zabid (c. 1200).[252]

Central dome of the Ashrafiyya Mosque in Ta’izz (circa 1397)

The Ayyubids launched domed mosque varieties in addition to Sunni-syle madrasas to the area, however none of their buildings in Yemen have survived. The Rasulids after them, nonetheless, have been prolific patrons of structure and perpetuated these new constructing varieties, influenced by their political hyperlinks with Egypt.[252][258] The Rasulids have been primarily based in Ta’izz and several other of their buildings survive there, together with the Muẓaffariyya Mosque (constructed by Sultan al-Malik al-Muẓaffar Yusuf someday between 1249 and 1295) and the Ashrafiyya Mosque (constructed by Sultan al-Malik al-Ashraf in 1397–1401), each of which function massive central domes flanked by smaller domes.[258][254] The oldest madrasas in Yemen additionally date from this time, together with three in Ta’izz: the Asadiyya Madrasa (earlier than 1258), the Mu’tabiyya Madrasa (1392) and the Ashrafiyya Madrasa (hooked up to the mosque of the identical title). In contrast to up to date madrasas in Egypt, the Rasulid madrasas don’t comply with the four-iwan structure. The Mu’tabiyya and Ashrafiyya madrasas each have rectangular flooring plans with a domed prayer corridor to the north and a courtyard to the south flanked by smaller domed and vaulted chambers on both facet which have been used for instructing.[258]

Throughout the identical interval, the Zaydi imams in northern Yemen have been buried in richly-decorated domed tombs which have been among the many solely important examples of one of these constructing in Yemen on the time, because the Rasulid rulers have been usually buried in tombs hooked up to their madrasas.[258] Minarets within the later Rasulid interval have been strongly influenced by Egyptian Mamluk minarets, with shafts divided into a number of ranges with differing designs, whereas Zaydi minarets have been typically less complicated.[258] With the arrival of Ottoman rule in Yemen after 1538, Rasulid-style structure continued to be the native norm in Sunni-controlled areas, however parts of Ottoman structure started to be launched within the late sixteenth century with the construciton of latest monuments such because the Bakiriyya Mosque in Sanaa in 1597.[254]

Shibam, an instance of a historic fortified village

Yemen can also be notable for its historic tower-houses, constructed on two or extra flooring. These homes range in kind and supplies from area to area. They’re usually constructed of mud (both rammed earth or sun-dried mud-brick), stone, or a mix of each, with timber used for roofs and flooring.[255][259] In some instances, as at Sanaa, the decrease flooring are in-built heavier stone and the higher flooring are in-built lighter brick.[259][257] Mud is typically blended with straw and the partitions are generally completed with lime.[259] Historically, the bottom flooring may very well be used for sensible capabilities comparable to agriculture, the center flooring consisted of varied multi-functional rooms, and the highest flooring typically had a big reception room (mafraj) which additionally loved the very best views.[255][259] Some villages and cities, comparable to Rada’a, have been constructed round a fortified citadel (e.g. the Citadel of Rada’a), others have been encircled by a excessive mud-brick wall (e.g. Shibam), and a few have been constructed in order that the homes themselves fashioned an outer wall alongside an elevated place (e.g. Khawlan).[259] Whereas these constructions are repaired and restored over time, this architectural type has remained typically unchanged for lots of of years.[255] The previous metropolis of Sanaa is a outstanding instance which preserves many of those homes. At the moment it’s a UNESCO World Heritage Website, though its conservation is threatened by the continuing Yemeni Civil Struggle.[257][260][261][262]

Indian subcontinent

The Taj Mahal in Agra (1632–1647),[263] essentially the most well-known constructing of Mughal structure

Indo-Islamic structure on the Indian subcontinent started in Sindh within the eighth century, the place stays of a congregational mosque at Banbhore courting to 725 have been uncovered.[264] The Ghurids laid the foundations of the Delhi Sultanate and constructed monuments in northern India within the Twelfth and Thirteenth centuries. Essentially the most notable monument of this era is the Quwwat al-Islam Mosque complicated and the Qutb Minar, which have been begun within the 1190s by Sultan Qutb al-Din Aybak. The mosque’s preliminary building reused spolia from Hindu and Jain temples and the complicated grew to become a prototype for a lot of mosques constructed within the area afterwards.[263][265] The progress of Islamization within the area throughout the 14th and fifteenth centuries resulted within the emergence of a extra distinctive Indo-Islamic type round this time, as exemplified by the monuments constructed below the Tughluq dynasty and different native states. Amongst different options, this type made elevated use of arches, vaulted areas, domes, and water options, whereas additionally integrating them with indigenous Indian architectural parts.[266] Within the northwestern a part of the subcontinent, some notable examples from this era embody the Tomb of Rukn-i Alam in Multan and the congregational mosque of Ahmedabad (1423), the latter of which is a very harmonious instance of Islamic and indigenous Indian parts mixed in a single constructing.[266][267]

One of the best identified type of Indo-Islamic structure is Mughal structure, largely constructed between about 1560 and 1720. Early Mughal structure developed from present Indo-Islamic structure but in addition adopted the mannequin of Timurid structure, due partially to the Timurid ancestry of the Mughal dynasty’s founder, Babur.[268][269][270][271] Mughal structure’s most outstanding examples are the sequence of imperial mausolea, which began with the pivotal Tomb of Humayun. Essentially the most well-known is the Taj Mahal in Agra, accomplished in 1648 by emperor Shah Jahan in reminiscence of his spouse Mumtaz Mahal who died whereas giving start to their 14th youngster. The Taj Mahal is totally symmetrical aside from Shah Jahan’s sarcophagus, which is positioned off middle within the crypt room beneath the principle flooring. This symmetry prolonged to the constructing of a complete mirror mosque in black marble to enrich the Mecca-facing mosque positioned to the west of the principle construction. One other barely later imperial mausoleum is the Bibi Ka Maqbara in Aurangabad (1678) which was commissioned by the sixth Mughal emperor, Aurangzeb, in reminiscence of his spouse.[272]

The Mughals additionally constructed monumental palaces and mosques. A well-known instance of the charbagh type of Mughal backyard is the Shalimar Gardens in Lahore, the place the domeless Tomb of Jahangir can also be positioned. The Crimson Fort in Delhi and the Agra Fort are enormous castle-like fortified palaces, and the deserted metropolis of Fatehpur Sikri, 26 miles (42 km) west of Agra, was constructed for Akbar within the late sixteenth century.[273] Main mosques constructed by Mughal emperors and their household embody the Jama Masjid (Friday Mosque) in Delhi, the Badshahi Mosque in Lahore, and different mosques of comparable kind which have been typically constructed close to or inside different imperial complexes. Even the Mughal the Aristocracy have been in a position to construct comparatively main monuments, as with the instance of the Wazir Khan Mosque in Lahore (1635), constructed by Wazir Khan when he was governor of the Punjab below Shah Jahan.[269][274] Within the later Mughal interval some native governors grew to become semi-autonomous, prompting them to construct their very own monuments and embellish their very own regional capitals with highly-creative native types of structure. The Bara Imambara complicated (c. 1780) constructed by Asaf al-Dawla in Lucknow is an instance of this.[275]

The Deccan sultanates within the southern areas of the Indian subcontinent additionally developed their native Indo-Islamic Deccani architectural types, exemplified by monuments such because the Charminar in Hyderabad (1591) and Gol Gumbaz in Bijapur (1656).[276][277][278] Within the jap a part of the Indian subcontinent, the Bengali area developed a definite regional type below the unbiased Bengal Sultanate, which flourished between the 14th and sixteenth centuries. It integrated influences from Persia, Byzantium and North India,[279] which have been with blended indigenous Bengali parts, comparable to curved roofs, nook towers and sophisticated terracotta ornamentation. One function within the sultanate was the relative absence of minarets.[280] Many small and medium-sized medieval mosques, with a number of domes and inventive area of interest mihrabs, have been constructed all through the area.[280] The grand mosque of Bengal was the Adina Mosque (1374–75), the biggest mosque within the Indian subcontinent, although partially ruined at the moment. Constructed of stone demolished from temples, it featured a monumental ribbed barrel vault over the central nave, the primary such big vault used wherever within the subcontinent. The mosque was modeled on the imperial Sasanian type of Persia.[281] One other distinctive instance which survives in present-day Bangladesh is the Sat Gumbaz (“Sixty-Dome”) Mosque in Bagerhat (c. 1450).[282] Later, a provincial type influenced by North India advanced in Mughal Bengal throughout the Seventeenth and 18th centuries. The Mughals additionally copied the Bengali do-chala roof custom for mausoleums in North India.[283]


Demak Mosque One of many oldest surviving mosques in Indonesia.[289]

Islam unfold step by step within the Malay-Indonesia archipelago from the Twelfth century onwards, and particularly throughout the fifteenth century because the Sultanate of Malacca dominated the area. The introduction of Islam was gradual and gradual. The arrival of Islam didn’t result in the introduction of a brand new constructing custom however noticed the appropriation of present architectural types, which have been reinterpreted to swimsuit Muslim necessities. Present architectural options in Malay-Indonesia such because the candi bentar gate, paduraksa (usually marks the doorway to essentially the most sacred precincts), balai nobat (a tower supposedly used to retailer royal musical devices) and the sacred pyramidal roof was used for Islamic structure. For hundreds of years, Malay-Indonesian mosques lacked domes or minarets, each thought-about of Center Japanese origin. Malay-Indonesian authentic mosques function multi-layered pyramidal roofs and no minaret. Prayer known as by putting a prayer’s drum referred to as beduk. The minaret of the Menara Kudus Mosque is a superb instance of Malay-Indonesian structure. Malay-Indonesian mosque structure additionally options sturdy affect from the Center Japanese structure types.[290] This type of structure might be discovered on the design of mosques in Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, the Philippines and Thailand. At the moment, with rising Muslim pilgrimage to Mecca, Malay-Indonesian mosques are creating a extra customary, worldwide type, with a dome and minaret.


The oldest surviving mosque in Indonesia is the Nice Mosque of Demak which is the royal mosque of the Sultanate of Demak, though this isn’t the oldest Islamic construction. The oldest Islamic construction in Indonesia are elements of the royal palace in Sultanate of Cirebon, Cirebon. The palace complicated comprises a chronogram which might be learn because the Saka equal of 1454 CE. Early Islamic palaces retain many options of pre-Islamic structure which is obvious within the gates or drum towers. The Kasepuhan Palace was most likely begun within the late pre-Islamic interval and continued to develop throughout the Hinduism-to-Islam transitional interval. The complicated comprises clues to the phases of the method of the gradual modifications as Islam turn into integrated into Indonesian structure. Two of the Hindu options adopted into Islam within the Palace is the 2 forms of gateways – the break up portal (candi bentar) which offers entry to the general public viewers pavilion and the lintel gate (paduraksa) which results in the frontcourt.


The unique mosque in Malaysia had a fundamental architectural type and construction: with 4 pillars for the muse and palm fronds for the roof. In Malacca, the architectural design is a cross between native Malay, Indian and Chinese language structure. Historically, the minaret resembles a pagoda with the type of “Balai Nobat”. An historic cemetery additionally normally lies subsequent to the mosque is the place some notable preachers and missionaries are buried.

Chinese language

The Nice Mosque of Xi’an, China

The primary Chinese language mosque was established within the seventh century throughout the Tang Dynasty in Xi’an. The Nice Mosque of Xi’an, whose present buildings date from the Ming Dynasty, doesn’t replicate lots of the options typically related to conventional mosques. As a substitute, it follows conventional Chinese language structure. Some Chinese language mosques in elements of western China have been extra prone to incorporate minarets and domes whereas jap Chinese language mosques have been extra prone to appear like pagodas.[292]

As in different areas, Chinese language Islamic structure displays the native structure in its type; some Chinese language mosques resemble temples. In western China, mosques resemble these of the Arab World, with tall, slender minarets, curvy arches and dome formed roofs. In northwest China the place the Chinese language Hui have constructed their mosques, there’s a mixture of jap and western types. The mosques have flared Buddhist type roofs set in walled courtyards entered by means of archways with miniature domes and minarets.[293]

Volga Tatar

A Tatar minaret courting from the fifteenth century

Tatar structure has advanced by means of the intervals of the Golden Horde, the Tatar khanates and below the rule of the Russian Empire. Many conventional Tatar mosques constructed by the Volga Tatars have a gabled roof and a minaret positioned within the middle of the mosque, above the roof, fairly than on the facet or nook of the constructing. Examples of such mosques survive from the 18th and Nineteenth centuries and have been restored in fashionable instances.[294] This type can also be discovered among the many wood mosques of the Lithuanian Tatars, whose mosque structure was influenced by the Kazan (Volga) Tatars.[295] One other kind of mosque, with a domed roof and a minaret standing above the doorway, appeared within the mid-Nineteenth century.[294]


In West Africa, Muslim retailers performed a significant function within the Western Sahel area because the Kingdom of Ghana. At Kumbi Saleh, locals lived in domed-shaped dwellings within the king’s part of the town, surrounded by a fantastic enclosure. Merchants lived in stone homes in a piece which possessed 12 stunning mosques (as described by al-bakri), one centered on Friday prayer.[296] The king is claimed to have owned a number of mansions, certainly one of which was 66 ft lengthy, 42 ft extensive, contained seven rooms, was two tales excessive, and had a staircase; with the partitions and chambers full of sculpture and portray.[297] Sahelian structure initially grew from the 2 cities of Djenné and Timbuktu. The Sankore Mosque in Timbuktu, constructed from mud on timber, was comparable in type to the Nice Mosque of Djenné.


Almnara Tower Somalia

The Thirteenth century Fakr ad-Din Mosque in Mogadishu

The unfold of Islam within the early medieval period of Somalia’s historical past introduced Islamic architectural influences from Arabia and Persia, which stimulated a shift from drystone and different associated supplies in building to coral stone, sundried bricks, and the widespread use of limestone in Somali structure. Lots of the new architectural designs comparable to mosques have been constructed on the ruins of older constructions, a observe that might proceed over and over all through the next centuries.[298] Concordant with the traditional presence of Islam within the Horn of Africa area, mosques in Somalia are among the oldest on the whole continent. One architectural function that made Somali mosques distinct from different mosques in Africa have been minarets.

For hundreds of years, Arba Rukun (1269), the Friday mosque of Merca (1609) and Fakr ad-Din (1269) have been, actually, the one mosques in East Africa to have minarets.[299] Fakr ad-Din, which dates again to the Mogadishan Golden Age, was constructed with marble and coral stone and included a compact rectangular plan with a domed mihrab axis. Glazed tiles have been additionally used within the ornament of the mihrab, certainly one of which bears a dated inscription. The Thirteenth century Al Gami College consisted of an oblong base with a big cylindrical tower architecturally distinctive within the Islamic world.

Shrines to honor Somali patriarchs and matriarchs advanced from historic Somali burial customs. In Southern Somalia the popular medieval shrine structure was the Pillar tomb type whereas the North predominantly constructed constructions consisting of domes and sq. plans.

In fashionable instances

Sultan Qaboos Grand Mosque at Muscat is the principle mosque within the Sultanate of Oman, began in 1995 and inaugurated in 2001.

Faisal Mosque at Islamabad, Pakistan designed by Vedat Dalokay.

Museum of Islamic Artwork at Doha, Qatar designed by I. M. Pei.

In fashionable instances, the structure of Islamic buildings, not simply non secular ones, has gone by means of some modifications. The brand new architectural type would not stick to the identical basic elements that have been seen up to now, however mosques for essentially the most half nonetheless function the identical elements—the miḥrāb (مِـحْـرَاب), the minarets, four-iwan plan, and the pishtaq. A distinction to notice is the looks of mosques with out domes, as up to now mosques for essentially the most half all had them, however these new dome-less mosques appear to comply with a perform over kind design, and are created by these not of the Islamic religion, typically. The affect of Islam nonetheless pervades the type of creation itself, and offers a ‘conceptual framework’,[300] for the making of a constructing that exemplifies the types and beliefs of Islam. It has additionally been influenced by the now assembly of many alternative cultures, comparable to European types assembly Islamic types, resulting in Islamic architects incorporating options of different architectural and cultural types.[301]

City design and Islam

City design and the custom of Islamic styled structure have begun to mix to kind a brand new ‘neo-Islamic’ type, the place the effectivity of the city type meshes with the spirituality and aesthetic traits of Islamic types.[302] Islamic Structure in itself is a method that showcases the values, and the tradition of Islam, however in fashionable instances sticking to custom is falling off form, so a mix type fashioned. Examples displaying this are locations such because the Marrakesh Menara Airport, the Islamic Cultural Middle and Museum of Tolerance, Masjid Permata Qolbu, the idea for The Vanishing Mosque, and the Mazar-e-Quaid. All of those buildings present the affect of Islam over them, but in addition the actions of issues like minimalism that are rising to recognition within the architectural area. Designers that use the elements of each fashionable types and the Islamic types discovered a technique to have the Western-inspired modernism[302] with the classical cultural elements of Islamic structure. This idea although brings up the controversy of the id of the Islamic group, of the standard Islamic group, inside an area that does not comply with the best way they knew it.[303]

Debates on standing as a method of structure

There are some who additionally debate whether or not Islamic Structure can really be known as a method, because the non secular side is seen as separate and having no bearing on the architectural type,[300] whereas on the opposite facet folks additionally argue that the newfound development and divergence from the type of previous Islamic Structure is what’s inflicting the type to lose it standing. There are students that additionally imagine that the distinguishing options of the Islamic Structure type weren’t essentially discovered inside the structure, however have been fairly environmental markers, such because the sounds of prayer, the town round it, the occasions that occurred there.[304] The instance given is that we will solely really know {that a} constructing is a mosque by what occurs there, fairly than by visible cues.[304] Particular options which can be notably associated to Islamic Structure#—the Mihrab, the Minaret, and the Gate[304]#—are seen in a number of places and don’t at all times serve the identical use, and symbolism for being Islamic in nature is seen to be demonstrated extra culturally than it’s architecturally. Islamic Structure can also be generally known as a ‘hidden structure’, one that does not essentially present the bodily traits of the type, fairly it’s one thing that’s skilled.[305]

Connections and deeper meanings

Islamic geometric patterns in Saint Petersburg, Russia

Issue forming connections

Islamic structure is a uncared for topic inside historic research of world structure. Many students that research historic structure typically gloss over, if not fully ignore Islamic constructions. That is brought on by a number of parts, one being that there are little historic literary works that specific an Islamic architect’s motives with their constructions.[306][307] As a result of extensive geographic vary of the Islamic faith, there’s a massive variation between hundreds of present mosques with little consistency between them. Lastly, since it’s towards the Islamic religion to idolize earthly beings, any depictions of earthly beings lack non secular connection. These traits mix to make it tough for historians to kind symbolic connections from structure in Islamic locations of worship.[307] Some authors have tried to ascribe mystical or mathematical symbolisms to varied elements Islamic structure. Nonetheless, whereas these symbolic meanings could also be believable for sure particular buildings, they don’t seem to be essentially relevant to the remainder of Islamic structure.[308]

Non secular and societal connections

In contrast to Christianity, Islam doesn’t sensationalize dwelling beings as a result of it’s considered as a battle with the Qur’an. From an Islamic viewpoint, something created by God is below his order and thus shouldn’t be idolized.[306] This leaves typical non secular Western symbols out of the image, and replaces them with an emphasis on complicated geometrical shapes and patterns.[306]

There are a number of elements of Islamic structure that to fashionable information lack a symbolic non secular which means, however there are connections that do exist. A repeated and important motif in mosques is calligraphy. Calligraphy performs an enormous function in delivering non secular connections by means of inventive design.[306] Calligraphy, in a mosque setting, is particularly used to reference excerpts from each the Qur’an and Muhammad’s teachings. These references are one of many few non secular connections architects embody inside their work.[306][307]

Standing and hierarchy

Islamic structure varies vastly the world over. Particularly, some mosques have totally different targets and intentions than others. These intentions typically highlighted non secular and social hierarchies inside the mosque. Mosques are designed to have the least important parts of the structure closest to the doorway, as folks transfer deeper into the constructing extra important non secular areas are revealed.[307] Hierarchy can also be current as a result of sure Islamic architects are tasked to design particularly for the presence of royalty, though in Islamic perception all Muslims within the mosque are equal. Designated places had been fastidiously chosen within the mosque to focus on a person’s place in society. This emphasis may very well be made by being inside view to all attendees, by being positioned in the point of interest of artistry, or with a maqsurah.[309]

Sustaining a sociological hierarchy inside a mosque would usually symbolize a recognition by the next being conscious of a delegation of energy. This hierarchy does exist however not with any type of non secular message as Hillenbrand factors out, “in neither case is that this hierarchy employed for particularly portentous ends.”[306] Hierarchy exists within the church in several types, however is supposed for purely purposeful functions.[306]

Structural intentions

Deeper meanings in Islamic structure typically take kind as purposeful functions. For instance, mosques are constructed round the concept it mustn’t simply be a spot of mesmerizing aesthetics, however a spot the place the aesthetics’ fluidity information the particular person into correct worship.[306]

A key function of the mosque is the mihrab, a common a part of any Islamic place of worship.[309] The mihrab is definitely identifiable by means of a receding wall and a gable overhead typically consisting of intricate patterns. Upon getting into, essentially the most essential non secular perform the structure of the mosque serves to ship is the qibla.[306] The qibla is critical for correct Islamic worship, and is revealed by means of architectural means.[310]

Threats and conservation

Some outstanding examples of Islamic structure, just like the Citadel and Nice Mosque of Aleppo, have suffered important harm within the ongoing Syrian Civil Struggle and different wars within the Center East.[311]

Up to date Muslim architects

  • Fazlur Khan
  • Abdel-Wahed El-Wakil
  • Vedat Dalokay
  • Kamran Afshar Naderi
  • T.Abdul Hussain Thariani
  • Fahraddin Miralay
  • Muzharul Islam
  • Mubashra Ilyas
  • Nabih Youssef
  • Bashirul Haq
  • Zaha Hadid
  • Nayyar Ali Dada
  • Habib Fida Ali
  • Hassan Fathy
  • Mimar Sinan

See additionally

  • Archnet, database of Islamic structure
  • Gozo Farmhouse
  • Turbah
  • Properly Home



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  • Behrens-Abouseif, Doris (2007). Cairo of the Mamluks: A Historical past of Structure and its Tradition. Cairo: The American College in Cairo Press. ISBN 9789774160776.
  • Blair, Sheila; Bloom, Jonathan M. (1995). The Artwork and Structure of Islam 1250–1800. Yale College Press. ISBN 978-0-300-06465-0.
  • Bloom, Jonathan M.; Blair, Sheila (2009). The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Artwork & Structure. Oxford College Press. ISBN 978-0-19-530991-1. Retrieved 2013-03-15.
  • Bloom, Jonathan M. (2013). The minaret. Edinburgh: Edinburgh College Press. ISBN 978-0748637256. OCLC 856037134.
  • Bloom, Jonathan M. (2020). Structure of the Islamic West: North Africa and the Iberian Peninsula, 700-1800. Yale College Press. ISBN 9780300218701.
  • Kuban, Doğan (2010). Ottoman Structure. Translated by Mill, Adair. Vintage Collectors’ Membership. ISBN 9781851496044.
  • Ettinghausen, Richard; Grabar, Oleg; Jenkins-Madina, Marilyn (2001). Islamic Artwork and Structure: 650–1250. Yale College Press. ISBN 978-0-300-08869-4. Retrieved 2013-03-17.
  • Flood, Finbarr Barry; Necipoğlu, Gülru, eds. (2017). A Companion to Islamic Artwork and Structure. Wiley Blackwell. ISBN 9781119068662.
  • Freely, John (2011). A Historical past of Ottoman Structure. WIT Press. ISBN 978-1-84564-506-9.
  • Giese-Vögeli, Francine (2007). Das islamische Rippengewölbe : Ursprung, Kind, Verbreitung [Islamic rib vaults: Origins, form, spread]. Berlin: Gebr. Mann. ISBN 978-3-7861-2550-1.
  • Hattstein, Markus; Delius, Peter, eds. (2011). Islam: Artwork and Structure. h.f.ullmann. ISBN 9783848003808.
  • Hillenbrand, Robert (1999a). “Anjar and early Islamic urbanism”. In Brogiolo, Gian Pietro; Perkins, Bryan Ward (eds.). The Thought and Very best of the City Between Late Antiquity and the Early Center Ages. BRILL. ISBN 978-90-04-10901-8.
  • Hillenbrand, Robert (1999b). Islamic artwork and structure. New York: Thames and Hudson. ISBN 978-0-500-20305-7.
  • Nuttgens, Patrick (1997). The Story of Structure. London: Phaidon Press. ISBN 978-0-7148-3615-7.
  • Ostergren, Robert C.; Le Boss, Mathias (2011). The Europeans: A Geography of Folks, Tradition, and Setting (2nd ed.). Guilford Press. ISBN 9781609181413.
  • Petersen, Andrew (1996). Dictionary of Islamic Structure. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-203-20387-3.
  • Porter, Yves; Degeorge, Gérard (2009). The Glory of the Sultans: Islamic Structure in India. Flammarion. ISBN 9782080301109.
  • Shahîd, Irfan (1995a). Byzantium and the Arabs within the Sixth Century. Vol. 2 (Half 1). Dumbarton Oaks. ISBN 978-0-88402-284-8.
  • Shahîd, Irfan (1995b). Byzantium and the Arabs within the Sixth Century. Vol. 2 (Half 2). Harvard College Press. ISBN 978-0-88402-347-0.
  • Sumner-Boyd, Hilary; Freely, John (2010). Strolling By way of Istanbul: The Traditional Information to the Metropolis (Revised ed.). Tauris Parke Paperbacks.
  • Williams, Caroline (2018). Islamic Monuments in Cairo: The Sensible Information (Seventh ed.). The American College in Cairo Press. ISBN 978-9774168550.

Additional studying

  • Fletcher, Banister (1996) [1896]. Cruickshank, Dan (ed.). Sir Banister Fletcher’s a Historical past of Structure (twentieth ed.). Architectural Press. ISBN 978-0-7506-2267-7.
  • Abdullahi, Yahya; Bin Embi, Mohamed Rashid (2013). “Evolution of Islamic geometric patterns”. Frontiers of Architectural Analysis. 2 (2): 243–251. doi:10.1016/j.foar.2013.03.002.
  • Abdullahi, Yahya; Bin Embi, Mohamed Rashid (2015). “Evolution Of Summary Vegetal Ornaments on Islamic Structure”. Worldwide Journal of Architectural Analysis: ArchNet-IJAR. 9: 31. doi:10.26687/archnet-ijar.v9i1.558.

  • ARCHITECTURE OF ISLAM by Takeo Kamiya (Half in English and half in Japanese)
  • ARCHNET Open entry, on-line useful resource on structure and artwork of Muslim societies, globally and all through historical past to our instances
  • Fatimid-era Ayyubid Wall of Cairo Digital Media Archive (inventive commons-licensed photographs, laser scans, panoramas), information from an Aga Khan Basis/CyArk analysis partnership
  • Islamic Arts and Structure web site
  • Tehranimages. Up to date photographs taken in among the oldest districts of Tehran.
  • 10,000+ Architectural collections worldwide Islamic Artwork And Structure designs worldwide.

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