Baltyk Tower

View of Florence showing the dome, which dominates everything around it. It is octagonal in plan and ovoid in section. It has wide ribs rising to the apex with red tiles in between and a marble lantern on top.

In including the dome to the Florence Cathedral (Italy) within the early fifteenth century, the architect Filippo Brunelleschi not solely reworked the constructing and town, but additionally the function and standing of the architect.[1][2]

Structure (Latin architectura, from the Greek ἀρχιτέκτων arkhitekton “architect”, from ἀρχι- “chief” and τέκτων “creator”) is each the method and the product of planning, designing, and establishing buildings or different constructions.[3] Architectural works, within the materials type of buildings, are sometimes perceived as cultural symbols and as artworks. Historic civilizations are sometimes recognized with their surviving architectural achievements.[4]

The observe, which started within the prehistoric period, has been used as a approach of expressing tradition for civilizations on all seven continents.[5] For that reason, structure is taken into account to be a type of artwork. Texts on structure have been written since historical time. The earliest surviving textual content on architectural principle is the first century AD treatise De architectura by the Roman architect Vitruvius, in accordance with whom a very good constructing embodies firmitas, utilitas, and venustas (sturdiness, utility, and sweetness). Centuries later, Leon Battista Alberti developed his concepts additional, seeing magnificence as an goal high quality of buildings to be discovered of their proportions. Giorgio Vasari wrote Lives of the Most Wonderful Painters, Sculptors, and Architects and put ahead the concept of favor within the Western arts within the sixteenth century. Within the Nineteenth century, Louis Sullivan declared that “type follows perform”. “Perform” started to switch the classical “utility” and was understood to incorporate not solely sensible but additionally aesthetic, psychological and cultural dimensions. The concept of sustainable structure was launched within the late Twentieth century.

Structure started as rural, oral vernacular structure that developed from trial and error to profitable replication. Historic city structure was preoccupied with constructing spiritual constructions and buildings symbolizing the political energy of rulers till Greek and Roman structure shifted focus to civic virtues. Indian and Chinese language structure influenced kinds throughout Asia and Buddhist structure specifically took numerous native flavors. Through the European Center Ages, pan-European types of Romanesque and Gothic cathedrals and abbeys emerged whereas the Renaissance favored Classical kinds carried out by architects identified by identify. Later, the roles of architects and engineers turned separated. Fashionable structure started after World Battle I as an avant-garde motion that sought to develop a very new type applicable for a brand new post-war social and financial order targeted on assembly the wants of the center and dealing lessons. Emphasis was placed on fashionable strategies, supplies, and simplified geometric kinds, paving the way in which for high-rise superstructures. Many architects turned disillusioned with modernism which they perceived as ahistorical and anti-aesthetic, and postmodern and modern structure developed.

Over time, the sphere of architectural building has branched out to incorporate every part from ship design to inside adorning.


Structure can imply:

  • A basic time period to explain buildings and different bodily constructions.[6]
  • The artwork and science of designing buildings and (some) nonbuilding constructions.[6]
  • The type of design and methodology of building of buildings and different bodily constructions.[6]
  • A unifying or coherent type or construction.[7]
  • Data of artwork, science, expertise, and humanity.[6]
  • The design exercise of the architect,[6] from the macro-level (city design, panorama structure) to the micro-level (building particulars and furnishings). The observe of the architect, the place structure means providing or rendering skilled providers in reference to the design and building of buildings, or constructed environments.[8]

Principle of structure

Illustration of bracket arm clusters containing cantilevers from Yingzao Fashi, a textual content on structure by Li Jue (1065–1110)

Plan d'exécution du second étage de l'hôtel de Brionne (dessin) De Cotte 2503c – Gallica 2011 (adjusted)

Plan of the second flooring (attic storey) of the Hôtel de Brionne in Paris – 1734.

The philosophy of structure is a department of philosophy of artwork, coping with aesthetic worth of structure, its semantics and relations with improvement of tradition. Many philosophers and theoreticians from Plato to Michel Foucault, Gilles Deleuze,[9] Robert Venturi and Ludwig Wittgenstein have involved themselves with the character of structure and whether or not or not structure is distinguished from constructing.

Historic treatises

The earliest surviving written work with reference to structure is De architectura by the Roman architect Vitruvius within the early 1st century AD.[10] In accordance with Vitruvius, a very good constructing ought to fulfill the three rules of firmitas, utilitas, venustas,[11][12] generally identified by the unique translation – firmness, commodity and delight. An equal in fashionable English can be:

  • Sturdiness – a constructing ought to arise robustly and stay in good situation
  • Utility – it needs to be appropriate for the needs for which it’s used
  • Magnificence – it needs to be aesthetically pleasing

In accordance with Vitruvius, the architect ought to attempt to meet every of those three attributes in addition to doable. Leon Battista Alberti, who elaborates on the concepts of Vitruvius in his treatise, De re aedificatoria, noticed magnificence primarily as a matter of proportion, though decoration additionally performed a component. For Alberti, the foundations of proportion have been people who ruled the idealised human determine, the Golden imply. Crucial side of magnificence was, due to this fact, an inherent a part of an object, quite than one thing utilized superficially, and was based mostly on common, recognisable truths. The notion of favor within the arts was not developed till the sixteenth century, with the writing of Giorgio Vasari.[13] By the 18th century, his Lives of the Most Wonderful Painters, Sculptors, and Architects had been translated into Italian, French, Spanish, and English.

Within the sixteenth century, Italian Mannerist architect, painter and theorist Sebastiano Serlio wrote Tutte L’Opere D’Architettura et Prospetiva (Full Works on Structure and Perspective). This treatise exerted immense affect all through Europe, being the primary handbook that emphasised the sensible quite than the theoretical features of structure, and it was the primary to catalog the 5 orders.[14]

Within the early Nineteenth century, Augustus Welby Northmore Pugin wrote Contrasts (1836) that, because the titled instructed, contrasted the fashionable, industrial world, which he disparaged, with an idealized picture of neo-medieval world. Gothic structure, Pugin believed, was the one “true Christian type of structure.”[15] The Nineteenth-century English artwork critic, John Ruskin, in his Seven Lamps of Structure, printed 1849, was a lot narrower in his view of what constituted structure. Structure was the “artwork which so disposes and adorns the edifices raised by males … that the sight of them” contributes “to his psychological well being, energy, and pleasure”.[16] For Ruskin, the aesthetic was of overriding significance. His work goes on to state {that a} constructing is just not actually a piece of structure until it’s not directly “adorned”. For Ruskin, a well-constructed, well-proportioned, practical constructing wanted string programs or rustication, on the very least.[16]

On the distinction between the beliefs of structure and mere building, the famend Twentieth-century architect Le Corbusier wrote: “You utilize stone, wooden, and concrete, and with these supplies you construct homes and palaces: that’s building. Ingenuity is at work. However abruptly you contact my coronary heart, you do me good. I’m completely satisfied and I say: That is lovely. That’s Structure”.[17] Le Corbusier’s modern Ludwig Mies van der Rohe mentioned “Structure begins whenever you rigorously put two bricks collectively. There it begins.”[18]

The view shows a 20th-century building with two identical towers very close to each other rising from a low building which has a dome at one end, and an inverted dome, like a saucer, at the other.

The Nationwide Congress of Brazil, designed by Oscar Niemeyer

Fashionable ideas

The notable Nineteenth-century architect of skyscrapers, Louis Sullivan, promoted an overriding principle to architectural design: “Kind follows perform”. Whereas the notion that structural and aesthetic issues needs to be completely topic to performance was met with each recognition and skepticism, it had the impact of introducing the idea of “perform” rather than Vitruvius’ “utility”. “Perform” got here to be seen as encompassing all standards of the use, notion and pleasure of a constructing, not solely sensible but additionally aesthetic, psychological and cultural.

Nunzia Rondanini said, “By means of its aesthetic dimension structure goes past the practical features that it has in frequent with different human sciences. By means of its personal specific approach of expressing values, structure can stimulate and affect social life with out presuming that, in and of itself, it should promote social improvement…. To limit the which means of (architectural) formalism to artwork for artwork’s sake is just not solely reactionary; it will also be a purposeless quest for perfection or originality which degrades type right into a mere instrumentality”.[19]

Among the many philosophies which have influenced fashionable architects and their strategy to constructing design are Rationalism, Empiricism, Structuralism, Poststructuralism, Deconstruction and Phenomenology.

Within the late Twentieth century a brand new idea was added to these included within the compass of each construction and performance, the consideration of sustainability, therefore sustainable structure. To fulfill the modern ethos a constructing needs to be constructed in a fashion which is environmentally pleasant when it comes to the manufacturing of its supplies, its influence upon the pure and constructed surroundings of its surrounding space and the calls for that it makes upon non-sustainable energy sources for heating, cooling, water and waste administration, and lighting.

Historical past

Origins and vernacular structure

Constructing first advanced out of the dynamics between wants (shelter, safety, worship, and many others.) and means (out there constructing supplies and attendant abilities). As human cultures developed and data started to be formalized by way of oral traditions and practices, constructing turned a craft, and “structure” is the identify given to essentially the most extremely formalized and revered variations of that craft. It’s broadly assumed that architectural success was the product of a means of trial and error, with progressively much less trial and extra replication because the outcomes of the method proved more and more passable. What’s termed vernacular structure continues to be produced in lots of elements of the world.

Prehistoric structure

Early human settlements have been largely rural. Expending economies resulted within the creation of city areas which in some circumstances grew and advanced very quickly, similar to that of Çatal Höyük in Anatolia and Mohenjo Daro of the Indus Valley Civilization in modern-day Pakistan.

Neolithic settlements and “cities” embrace Göbekli Tepe and Çatalhöyük in Turkey, Jericho within the Levant, Mehrgarh in Pakistan, Knap of Howar and Skara Brae, Orkney Islands, Scotland, and the Cucuteni-Trypillian tradition settlements in Romania, Moldova and Ukraine.

Historic structure

In lots of historical civilizations similar to these of Egypt and Mesopotamia, structure and urbanism mirrored the fixed engagement with the divine and the supernatural, and plenty of historical cultures resorted to monumentality in structure to symbolize symbolically the political energy of the ruler, the ruling elite, or the state itself.

The structure and urbanism of the Classical civilizations such because the Greek and the Roman advanced from civic beliefs quite than spiritual or empirical ones and new constructing varieties emerged. Architectural “type” developed within the type of the Classical orders. Roman structure was influenced by Greek structure as they integrated many Greek components into their constructing practices.[20]

Texts on structure have been written since historical time. These texts supplied each basic recommendation and particular formal prescriptions or canons. Some examples of canons are discovered within the writings of the 1st-century BCE Roman Architect Vitruvius. A few of the most vital early examples of canonic structure are spiritual.

Asian structure

The structure of various elements of Asia developed alongside completely different traces from that of Europe; Buddhist, Hindu and Sikh structure every having completely different traits. Indian and Chinese language structure have had nice affect on the encompassing areas, whereas Japanese structure has not. Buddhist structure, specifically, confirmed nice regional range. Hindu temple structure, which developed from across the fifth century CE, is in principle ruled by ideas laid down within the Shastras, and is anxious with expressing the macrocosm and the microcosm. In lots of Asian international locations, pantheistic faith led to architectural kinds that have been designed particularly to boost the pure panorama.

In lots of elements of Asia, even the grandest homes have been comparatively light-weight constructions primarily utilizing wooden till current occasions, and there are few survivals of nice age. Buddhism was related to a transfer to stone and brick spiritual constructions, in all probability starting as rock-cut structure, which has typically survived very effectively.

Early Asian writings on structure embrace the Kao Gong Ji of China from the seventh–fifth centuries BCE; the Shilpa Shastras of historical India; Manjusri Vasthu Vidya Sastra of Sri Lanka and Araniko of Nepal .

Islamic structure

Islamic structure started within the seventh century CE, incorporating architectural kinds from the traditional Center East and Byzantium, but additionally growing options to go well with the spiritual and social wants of the society. Examples might be discovered all through the Center East, Turkey, North Africa, the Indian Sub-continent and in elements of Europe, similar to Spain, Albania, and the Balkan States, as the results of the growth of the Ottoman Empire.

Center Ages

In Europe through the Medieval interval, guilds have been shaped by craftsmen to prepare their trades and written contracts have survived, notably in relation to ecclesiastical buildings. The function of architect was normally one with that of grasp mason, or Magister lathomorum as they’re typically described in modern paperwork.

The most important architectural undertakings have been the buildings of abbeys and cathedrals. From about 900 CE onward, the actions of each clerics and tradesmen carried architectural data throughout Europe, ensuing within the pan-European types Romanesque and Gothic.

Additionally, a big a part of the Center Ages architectural heritage is quite a few fortifications throughout the continent. From Balkans to Spain, and from Malta to Estonia, these buildings symbolize an vital a part of European heritage.

Renaissance and the architect

In Renaissance Europe, from about 1400 onwards, there was a revival of Classical studying accompanied by the event of Renaissance humanism, which positioned larger emphasis on the function of the person in society than had been the case through the Medieval interval. Buildings have been ascribed to particular architects – Brunelleschi, Alberti, Michelangelo, Palladio – and the cult of the person had begun. There was nonetheless no dividing line between artist, architect and engineer, or any of the associated vocations, and the appellation was typically certainly one of regional desire.

A revival of the Classical type in structure was accompanied by a burgeoning of science and engineering, which affected the proportions and construction of buildings. At this stage, it was nonetheless doable for an artist to design a bridge as the extent of structural calculations concerned was throughout the scope of the generalist.

Early fashionable and the economic age

With the rising data in scientific fields and the rise of recent supplies and expertise, structure and engineering started to separate, and the architect started to focus on aesthetics and the humanist features, typically on the expense of technical features of constructing design. There was additionally the rise of the “gentleman architect” who normally handled rich purchasers and concentrated predominantly on visible qualities derived normally from historic prototypes, typified by the numerous nation homes of Nice Britain that have been created within the Neo Gothic or Scottish baronial types.
Formal architectural coaching within the Nineteenth century, for instance at École des Beaux-Arts in France, gave a lot emphasis to the manufacturing of gorgeous drawings and little to context and feasibility.

In the meantime, the Industrial Revolution laid open the door for mass manufacturing and consumption. Aesthetics turned a criterion for the center class as ornamented merchandise, as soon as throughout the province of pricy craftsmanship, turned cheaper below machine manufacturing.

Vernacular structure turned more and more decorative. Housebuilders might use present architectural design of their work by combining options present in sample books and architectural journals.


Across the starting of the Twentieth century, basic dissatisfaction with the emphasis on revivalist structure and elaborate ornament gave rise to many new traces of thought that served as precursors to Fashionable structure. Notable amongst these is the Deutscher Werkbund, shaped in 1907 to supply higher high quality machine-made objects. The rise of the career of business design is normally positioned right here. Following this lead, the Bauhaus college, based in Weimar, Germany in 1919, redefined the architectural bounds prior set all through historical past, viewing the creation of a constructing as the last word synthesis—the apex—of artwork, craft, and expertise.

When fashionable structure was first practised, it was an avant-garde motion with ethical, philosophical, and aesthetic underpinnings. Instantly after World Battle I, pioneering modernist architects sought to develop a very new type applicable for a brand new post-war social and financial order, targeted on assembly the wants of the center and dealing lessons. They rejected the architectural observe of the tutorial refinement of historic types which served the quickly declining aristocratic order. The strategy of the Modernist architects was to cut back buildings to pure kinds, eradicating historic references and decoration in favor of practical particulars. Buildings displayed their practical and structural components, exposing metal beams and concrete surfaces as a substitute of hiding them behind ornamental kinds. Architects similar to Frank Lloyd Wright developed natural structure, during which the shape was outlined by its surroundings and goal, with an intention to advertise concord between human habitation and the pure world with prime examples being Robie Home and Fallingwater.

Architects similar to Mies van der Rohe, Philip Johnson and Marcel Breuer labored to create magnificence based mostly on the inherent qualities of constructing supplies and fashionable building strategies, buying and selling conventional historic kinds for simplified geometric kinds, celebrating the brand new means and strategies made doable by the Industrial Revolution, together with steel-frame building, which gave delivery to high-rise superstructures. Fazlur Rahman Khan’s improvement of the tube construction was a technological break-through in constructing ever increased. By mid-century, Modernism had morphed into the Worldwide Model, an aesthetic epitomized in some ways by the Twin Towers of New York’s World Commerce Middle designed by Minoru Yamasaki.


Many architects resisted modernism, discovering it devoid of the ornamental richness of historic types. As the primary era of modernists started to die after World Battle II, the second era of architects together with Paul Rudolph, Marcel Breuer, and Eero Saarinen tried to develop the aesthetics of modernism with Brutalism, buildings with expressive sculptural façades fabricated from unfinished concrete. However an excellent new youthful postwar era critiqued modernism and Brutalism for being too austere, standardized, monotone, and never bearing in mind the richness of human expertise supplied in historic buildings throughout time and somewhere else and cultures.

One such response to the chilly aesthetic of modernism and Brutalism is the college of metaphoric structure, which incorporates things like biomorphism and zoomorphic structure, each utilizing nature as the first supply of inspiration and design. Whereas it’s thought-about by some to be merely a side of postmodernism, others think about it to be a faculty in its personal proper and a later improvement of expressionist structure.[24]

Starting within the late Nineteen Fifties and Sixties, architectural phenomenology emerged as an vital motion within the early response towards modernism, with architects like Charles Moore in the US, Christian Norberg-Schulz in Norway, and Ernesto Nathan Rogers and Vittorio Gregotti, Michele Valori, Bruno Zevi in Italy, who collectively popularized an curiosity in a brand new modern structure geared toward increasing human expertise utilizing historic buildings as fashions and precedents.[25] Postmodernism produced a method that mixed modern constructing expertise and low cost supplies, with the aesthetics of older pre-modern and non-modern types, from excessive classical structure to widespread or vernacular regional constructing types. Robert Venturi famously outlined postmodern structure as a “adorned shed” (an odd constructing which is functionally designed inside and embellished on the skin) and upheld it towards modernist and brutalist “geese” (buildings with unnecessarily expressive tectonic kinds).[26]

Structure immediately

Because the Eighties, because the complexity of buildings started to extend (when it comes to structural methods, providers, power and applied sciences), the sphere of structure turned multi-disciplinary with specializations for every mission kind, technological experience or mission supply strategies. Furthermore, there was an elevated separation of the ‘design’ architect [Notes 1] from the ‘mission’ architect who ensures that the mission meets the required requirements and offers with issues of legal responsibility.[Notes 2] The preparatory processes for the design of any massive constructing have change into more and more difficult, and require preliminary research of such issues as sturdiness, sustainability, high quality, cash, and compliance with native legal guidelines. A big construction can now not be the design of 1 particular person however have to be the work of many.
Modernism and Postmodernism have been criticised by some members of the architectural career who really feel that profitable structure is just not a private, philosophical, or aesthetic pursuit by individualists; quite it has to think about on a regular basis wants of individuals and use expertise to create habitable environments, with the design course of being knowledgeable by research of behavioral, environmental, and social sciences.

Environmental sustainability has change into a mainstream difficulty, with a profound impact on the architectural career. Many builders, those that help the financing of buildings, have change into educated to encourage the facilitation of environmentally sustainable design, quite than options based mostly totally on quick price. Main examples of this may be present in passive photo voltaic constructing design, greener roof designs, biodegradable supplies, and extra consideration to a construction’s power utilization. This main shift in structure has additionally modified structure colleges to focus extra on the surroundings. There was an acceleration within the variety of buildings that search to satisfy inexperienced constructing sustainable design rules. Sustainable practices that have been on the core of vernacular structure more and more present inspiration for environmentally and socially sustainable modern strategies.[27] The U.S. Inexperienced Constructing Council’s LEED (Management in Power and Environmental Design) score system has been instrumental on this.[28][quantify]

Concurrently, the current actions of New Urbanism, Metaphoric structure, Complementary structure and New Classical structure promote a sustainable strategy in the direction of building that appreciates and develops good progress, architectural custom and classical design.[29][30] This in distinction to modernist and globally uniform structure, in addition to leaning towards solitary housing estates and suburban sprawl.[31] Glass curtain partitions, which have been the hallmark of the extremely fashionable city life in lots of international locations surfaced even in growing international locations like Nigeria the place worldwide types had been represented because the mid Twentieth Century largely due to the leanings of foreign-trained architects.[32]

Different forms of structure

Stourhead in Wiltshire, England, designed by Henry Hoare (1705–1785)

Panorama structure

Panorama structure is the design of outside public areas, landmarks, and constructions to attain environmental, social-behavioral, or aesthetic outcomes.[33] It entails the systematic investigation of present social, ecological, and soil circumstances and processes within the panorama, and the design of interventions that can produce the specified consequence. The scope of the career consists of panorama design; website planning; stormwater administration; environmental restoration; parks and recreation planning; visible useful resource administration; inexperienced infrastructure planning and provision; and personal property and residence panorama grasp planning and design; all at various scales of design, planning and administration. A practitioner within the career of panorama structure is named a panorama architect.

Inside structure

Charles Rennie Waterproof coat – Music Room 1901

Inside structure is the design of an area which has been created by structural boundaries and the human interplay inside these boundaries. It will also be the preliminary design and plan to be used, then later redesigned to accommodate a modified goal, or a considerably revised design for adaptive reuse of the constructing shell.[34] The latter is commonly a part of sustainable structure practices, conserving sources by way of “recycling” a construction by adaptive redesign. Usually known as the spatial artwork of environmental design, type and observe, inside structure is the method by way of which the interiors of buildings are designed, involved with all features of the human makes use of of structural areas. Put merely, inside structure is the design of an inside in architectural phrases.

Naval structure

Physique plan of a ship displaying the hull type

Naval structure, also called naval engineering, is an engineering self-discipline coping with the engineering design course of, shipbuilding, upkeep, and operation of marine vessels and constructions.[35][36] Naval structure entails primary and utilized analysis, design, improvement, design analysis and calculations throughout all levels of the lifetime of a marine automobile. Preliminary design of the vessel, its detailed design, building, trials, operation and upkeep, launching and dry-docking are the principle actions concerned. Ship design calculations are additionally required for ships being modified (by way of conversion, rebuilding, modernization, or restore). Naval structure additionally entails the formulation of security rules and injury management guidelines and the approval and certification of ship designs to satisfy statutory and non-statutory necessities.

City design

City design is the method of designing and shaping the bodily options of cities, cities, and villages. In distinction to structure, which focuses on the design of particular person buildings, city design offers with the bigger scale of teams of buildings, streets and public areas, entire neighborhoods and districts, and full cities, with the objective of creating city areas practical, enticing, and sustainable.[37]

City design is an interdisciplinary discipline that makes use of components of many constructed surroundings professions, together with panorama structure, city planning, structure, civil engineering and municipal engineering.[38] It is not uncommon for professionals in all these disciplines to observe city design. In newer occasions completely different sub-subfields of city design have emerged similar to strategic city design, panorama urbanism, water-sensitive city design, and sustainable urbanism.

Metaphorical “architectures”

“Structure” is used as a metaphor for a lot of fashionable strategies or fields for structuring abstractions. These embrace:

  • Laptop structure, a algorithm and strategies that describe the performance, group, and implementation of pc methods, with software program structure, {hardware} structure and community structure masking extra particular features.
  • Enterprise structure, outlined as “a blueprint of the enterprise that gives a standard understanding of the group and is used to align strategic targets and tactical calls for”,[39] Enterprise structure is one other time period.
  • Cognitive structure theories in regards to the construction of the human thoughts
  • System structure a conceptual mannequin that defines the construction, habits, and extra views of any kind of system.[40]

Seismic structure

The time period ‘seismic structure’ or ‘earthquake structure’ was first launched in 1985 by Robert Reitherman.[41] The phrase “earthquake structure” is used to explain a level of architectural expression of earthquake resistance or implication of architectural configuration, type or type in earthquake resistance. It is usually used to explain buildings during which seismic design issues impacted its structure. It could be thought-about a brand new aesthetic strategy in designing constructions in seismic inclined areas.[42] The broad breadth of expressive prospects ranges from metaphorical makes use of of seismic points, to the extra simple publicity of seismic
expertise. Whereas outcomes of an earthquake structure might be very numerous of their bodily manifestations, architectural expression of seismic rules may take many kinds and ranges of sophistication.[43]

See additionally

  • Architectural engineering
  • Architectural expertise
  • Index of structure articles
  • Define of structure
  • Philosophy of structure
  • Reverse structure
  • Timeline of structure


  • World Structure Group
  •, printed by Royal Institute of British Architects
  • Architectural facilities and museums on this planet, record of hyperlinks from the UIA
  • American Institute of Architects
  • Glossary of Architectural Phrases
  • Cities and Buildings Database – Assortment of digitized photographs of buildings and cities drawn from throughout time and all through the world from the College of Washington Library
  • “Structure and Energy”, BBC Radio 4 dialogue with Adrian Tinniswood, Gillian Darley and Gavin Stamp (In Our Time, Oct. 31, 2002)

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